Sunday, November 18, 2018

"The Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual" Author & Psychologist Dr. Evelyn Gentry Hooker 1996 Woodlawn Cemetery


Evelyn Hooker (née Gentry, September 2, 1907 – November 18, 1996) was an American psychologist most notable for her 1957 paper "The Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual" in which she administered several psychological tests to groups of self-identified male homosexuals and heterosexuals and asked experts to identify the homosexuals and rate their mental health. The experiment, which other researchers subsequently repeated, argues that homosexuality is not a mental disorder, as there was no detectable difference between homosexual and heterosexual men in terms of mental adjustment.



Her work argued that a false correlation between homosexuality and mental illness had formed the basis of classifying homosexuality as a mental disorder by studying only a sample group that contained homosexual men with a history of treatment for mental illness. This is of critical importance in refuting the existence of the category of cultural heterosexism because it argues that homosexuality is not developmentally inferior to heterosexuality. Her demonstration that it is not an illness led the way to the eventual removal of homosexuality from the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.[1]



Life

Hooker was born Evelyn Gentry in North Platte, Nebraska, in her grandmother's house and grew up with eight brothers and sisters in the Colorado Plains. When she was 13, her family moved to Sterling, Colorado.[1][2] The journey to Sterling would be one of Evelyn's fondest memories.[3]

Evelyn's mother, Jessie Bethel, who had a third grade education, told her to pursue an education because that was the only thing that could not be taken away from her.[3] The Gentry family was not wealthy in the least, and Evelyn was further stigmatized by her nearly six-foot stature. Still an advocate of education, Jessie Bethel enrolled Evelyn at Sterling High School, which was large and unusually progressive for the time.[4] There, Evelyn was in an honors program and was able to take a course in psychology.[4] Evelyn wanted to go to a teachers college, but her instructors saw her potential and encouraged her to go to the University of Colorado. By the time she was ready to graduate, she had obtained a scholarship to the University of Colorado Boulder.[5]

In 1924 she became a student at the University of Colorado while working as a maid for a rich Boulder family. Her mentor, Dr. Karl Munzinger, guided her in her challenge of the then-prevalent psychological theory of behaviourism. She wrote her thesis paper on trial-and-error learning in rats.[6] He invited her to write her own case history. After receiving her Masters degree, she became one of 11 women involved in the PhD program in psychology at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, having been refused referral from the chairman of Yale for being a female. She studied with Knight Dunlap, who also generally did not approve of women doctorates.[6] She was awarded her PhD in 1932.[2]

In her early career, she wasn't especially interested in the psychology of homosexual people. After teaching for only one year at the Maryland College for Women, she contracted tuberculosis and spent the next year in a sanatorium in Arizona. After her recovery she began teaching at Whittier College in Southern California.[4] Then in 1937 Gentry received a fellowship to the Berlin Institute of Psychotherapy, at which point she left Whittier. Evelyn lived with a Jewish family while she studied in Europe. While there, she got a first-hand look at the rise of Adolf Hitler and witnessed such events as the Kristallnacht.[3] She learned later that the Jewish family she lived with was killed in concentration camps. Before returning home, Evelyn went on a group tour to Russia, arriving just after a major purge. The events that Evelyn would see in Europe ultimately sparked her desire to help overcome social injustice.[3]

When Evelyn was ready to return to work at Whittier, she found that she could not return. The heads at Whittier were afraid of her because she had spent a year living in a totalitarian Europe. She and several other staff were let go because they were suspected of subversive behavior.[7] As a result, she applied for work in the psychology department at the University of California, Los Angeles.[5] The chair of the psychology department at UCLA at the time was Knight Dunlap, Evelyn’s mentor from Johns Hopkins.[7] Dunlap said he would like to give her a job, but they already had three female faculty members and they were “cordially disliked.”[7] She was able to get a position as a research associate, however. Evelyn quickly gained a reputation as a brilliant teacher and researcher. She stayed at UCLA for 31 years, where she conducted research and taught experimental and physiological psychology until 1970 when she went into private practice.[3]

However, during the 1940s, she first became interested in what would turn out to be her life's work. Evelyn was teaching an introductory psychology class in 1944 when a student approached her after class. He identified himself as Sam From; he confided in her that he was gay and so were most of his friends.[5] She realized Sam was one of the brightest students in the class and quickly became friends with him. They would spend time between and after classes to talk and get to know each other. Sam introduced Evelyn to his circle of homosexual friends. They would go to clubs, bars, and parties where Evelyn was able to fraternize with more homosexuals.[5] Sam's closest friends were some of the most intelligent students Evelyn had the pleasure to meet, including Christopher Isherwood and Stephen Spender, a writer and a poet.[3] He challenged her to scientifically study "people like him."[2]

Sam proposed a question to Evelyn: Why not conduct research on homosexuals to determine whether homosexuality was some sort of disease or disorder and not relevant to a person's psychological makeup?[4] Sam urged her to conduct research on homosexuals, saying it was "her scientific duty to study people like us."[3] Evelyn was intrigued by the question and further persuaded by her experience with social rejection as a child, witnessing the effects of racial and political persecution in her travels, and discrimination in her professional life.

Over the next two decades she became established professionally. In 1948 she moved to a guest cottage at the Salter Avenue home of Edward Hooker, professor of English at UCLA and poetry scholar. They married in London in 1951, and she took his surname. In the mid-fifties Christopher Isherwood became their neighbor. She was against the relationship of Christopher Isherwood with the much younger Don Bachardy; they were not welcome at her house. [8] Sam From died in a car accident in 1956, just before Hooker's ground-breaking research was published. Hooker's husband died in January 1957 of cardiac arrest.[2]

The 1960s saw her work find a wider audience, and her conclusions were taken up by the gay rights movement. In 1961 Hooker was invited to lecture in Europe and in 1967, the director of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) asked her to produce a report on what the institution should do about homosexual men. Richard Nixon's election in 1969 delayed the publication of the report, which was published by a magazine, without authorization, in 1970. The report recommended the decriminalization of homosexuality and the provision of similar rights to both homosexual and heterosexual people. The burgeoning gay rights movement seized on this.[2]

She retired from her research at UCLA in 1970 at the age of 63 and started a private practice in Santa Monica. Most of her clients were gay men and lesbians.[2] In her later life she would be awarded with the Distinguished Contribution in the Public Interest Award.[5] The University of Chicago opened the Evelyn Hooker Center for Gay and Lesbian Studies in her honor. She was also the subject of the 1992 Academy Award–nominated film Changing Our Minds: The Story of Dr. Evelyn Hooker.[5]

Hooker died at her home in Santa Monica, California, in 1996, at the age of 89.[1]



Dr. Evelyn Gentry Hooker is buried at Woodlawn Cemetery in Santa Monica, California. 

















Experiment

Although Hooker had collected data about her homosexual friends since 1954, she felt this was of little value because of the lack of scientific rigor attached to the gathering of these data. She applied for a grant from the NIMH even though she was warned that it was highly unlikely she would receive it due to the controversy of the topic.[9] After all, the 1950s was at the height of the McCarthy era, and homosexuality was considered to be a mental disorder by psychologists, a sin by the church, and a crime by the law.[3] The man in charge of awarding the grants, John Eberhart, personally met with Hooker and convinced by her charm he awarded her the grant.[10]

She gathered two groups of men: one group would be exclusively homosexual, the other exclusively heterosexual. She contacted the Mattachine Society to find a large portion of homosexual men. The Mattachine Society was an organization whose purpose was to integrate homosexuals into society.[11] She had greater difficulty finding heterosexual men for the study. She gathered a sample of 30 heterosexual men and 30 homosexual men and paired them based on equivalent IQ, age, and education. For the interest of the study, it was required that none of the men from either group have previously been seen for psychological help, in disciplinary barracks in the Armed Services, in prison, showed evidence of considerable disturbance, or who were in therapy.[12] She also had to use her home to conduct the interview to protect the participants' anonymity.[2]

Hooker used three psychological tests for her study: the TAT, the Make-a-Picture-Story test (MAPS test), and the Rorschach inkblot test.[2] The Rorschach was used due to the belief of clinicians at the time that it was the best method for diagnosing homosexuality.[12]

After a year of work, Hooker presented a team of three expert evaluators with 60 unmarked psychological profiles. She decided to leave the interpretation of her results to other people, to avoid any possible bias.[2]

First, she contacted Bruno Klopfer, an expert on Rorschach tests, to see if he would be able to identify the sexual orientation of people through their results at those tests. His ability to differentiate between the two groups was no better than chance.[2] Then Edwin Shneidman, creator of the MAPS test, also analyzed the 60 profiles. It took him six months and he, too, found that both groups were highly similar in their psychological make-up.[2] The third expert was Dr Mortimer Mayer, who was so certain he would be able to tell the two groups apart that he went through the process twice.[2]

The assumption was that these tests would prompt respondents to reveal their innermost anxieties, fears, and wishes.[7] Each test response would be submitted in random order, with no identifying information, to Klopfer, Meyer, and Shneidman.[11] The judges had two tasks: to arrive at an overall adjustment rating on a five-point scale, and to distinguish in pairs which participant was homosexual and heterosexual.[7] The three evaluators concluded that in terms of adjustment, there were no differences between the members of each group.[2]

In 1956, Hooker presented the results of her research in a paper at the American Psychological Association's convention in Chicago.[2] The NIMH was so impressed with the evidence Hooker found they granted her the NIMH Research Career Award in 1961 to continue her work.[10]

Her studies contributed to a change in the attitudes of the psychological community toward homosexuality and to the American Psychiatric Association's decision to remove homosexuality from its handbook of disorders in 1973. This in turn helped change the attitude of society at large.[2] One element that did stay in the handbook of disorders was ego-dystonic homosexuality. Experts became concerned about using psychoanalytic approaches and behavior modification conversion therapy. In 1997 ego-dystonic homosexuality was also eliminated from the handbook when it was determined that psychological therapies could not cure homosexuality. [13]




Publications

Evelyn Hooker, "The adjustment of the male overt homosexual", Journal of projective techniques, XXI 1957, pp. 18–31. 
Evelyn Hooker, "The homosexual community". Proceedings of the XIV International congress of applied psychology, Munksgaard, Copenhagen 1961. 
Evelyn Hooker, "Homosexuality: Summary of studies". In Evelyn Duvall and Sylvanus Duvall (curr.), Sex ways in fact and faith, Association Press, New York 1961. 
Evelyn Hooker, "Male homosexual life styles and venereal disease". In: Proceedings of the World forum on syphilis and other treponematoses (Public Health Service Publication No. 997), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 1962. 
Evelyn Hooker, "Male homosexuality". In: N. L. Farberow (cur.), Taboo topics, Atherton, New York 1963, pp. 44–55. Evelyn Hooker, "An empirical study of some relations between sexual patterns and gender identity in male homosexuals". In J. Money (cur.), Sex research: new development, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York 1965, pp. 24–52. 
Evelyn Hooker, "Male homosexuals and their worlds". In: Judd Marmor (cur.), Sexual inversion: the multiple roots of homosexuality, Basic Books, New York 1965, pp. 83–107). Traduzione italiana in: Judd Marmor, Inversione sessuale. 
Evelyn Hooker, "Homosexuality". In: The international encyclopedia of the social sciences, Macmillan and Free Press, New York 1968. 
Evelyn Hooker, "Parental relations and male homosexuality in patient and non-patient samples", Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, XXXIII 1969, pp. 140–142. 
Evelyn Hooker, Foreword to: C. J. Williams and M. S. Weinberg, Homosexuals and the military: a study of less than honorable discharge, Harper and Row, New York 1971, pp. vii–ix.

Tributes

In 2010, actor/playwright Jade Esteban Estrada portrayed Hooker in the solo musical ICONS: The Lesbian and Gay History of the World, Vol. 4.

Honors and awards

In 1967 she became Chair of the NIMH Task Force on Homosexuality [6] In 1991 Hooker received the Award for Distinguished Contribution to Psychology in the Public Interest presented by the American Psychological Association.[9] In 1992 she received The Lifetime Achievement Award, APA's highest honor.[14]

References

"Evelyn Hooker, Ph.D.: September 2, 1907 – November 18, 1996". UC Davis. Retrieved April 23, 2011. 
Changing Our Minds: The Story of Dr. Evelyn Hooker on IMDb 
Jackson, K. T., Markoe, A., Markoe, K. (2001). The Scribner Encyclopedia of American Lives. Charles Scribner’s Sons. 4, 251–253. 
Milite, G. A. (2001). The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. Gale Group. 307–308. 
Ball, L. (2010). Psychology’s Feminist Voices. http://www.feministvoices.com/evelyn-gentry-hooker/ Shneidman, E. S. (1998). 
Evelyn Hooker (1907–1996). American Psychologist, 53(4), 480–481 Minton, H. L. (2002).
Departing From Deviance: A History of Homosexual Rights and Emancipatory Science in America. The University of Chicago Press. 219–236.
"Chris and Don, A love story", a film by Guido Santi and Tina Mascara, 2009. Link Text, additional text.
Ball, L. (2010). Profile of Evelyn Gentry Hooker. In A. Rutherford (Ed.), Psychology's Feminist Voices Multimedia Internet Archive. Retrieved from http://www.feministvoices.com/evelyn-gentry-hooker/ Hooker, E. (1957). 

The Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual. Journal of Projective Techniques. 21, 18–31.
Hooker, E. (1957). The Adjustment of the Male Overt Homosexual. Journal of Projective Techniques, 21(1), 18–31.
Brookey, R. A. (2005). Homosexuality Debate. In C. Mitcham (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and Ethics (Vol. 2, pp. 934-935)
Marmor, J., (1997). Evelyn Hooker: In memoriam (1907–1996). Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25(5), 577–578.



Friday, November 16, 2018

"Little House on the Prairie" Actress Katherine MacGregor 1925-2018 Memorial Video


Katherine "Scottie" MacGregor (born Dorlee Deane McGregor; January 12, 1925 – November 13, 2018) was an American actress, best known for her role as Harriet Oleson in Little House on the Prairie.

MacGregor died on November 13, 2018 at the age of 93, at the Motion Picture and Television Country House and Hospital in Woodland Hills, CA. No cause was given.






Monday, November 12, 2018

Spanish "Dracula" Actress Lupita Tovar 2016 Hillside Cemetery


Guadalupe Natalia Tovar[1][2] (27 July 1910 – 12 November 2016) professionally known by screen name Lupita Tovar was a Mexican-American actress and centenarian best known for her starring role in the 1931 Spanish language version of Drácula, filmed in Los Angeles by Universal Pictures at night using the same sets as the Bela Lugosi version, but with a different cast and director.[3] She also starred in the 1932 film Santa, one of the first Mexican sound films, and one of the first commercial Spanish-language sound films.[4]


Early life

Tovar was born in Matías Romero, Oaxaca, Mexico, the daughter of Egidio Tovar, who was from Tehuacán, Puebla, Mexico,[5][self-published source]:2 and Mary Tovar (née Sullivan), who was Irish-Mexican, from Matías Romero, Oaxaca, Mexico.[5]:3 Tovar was the oldest of nine children,[5]:5 though many of her siblings did not survive early childhood.[5]:11 Tovar grew up during the time of the Mexican Revolution and her family was very poor.[5]:7–8 She was raised in a very religious Catholic environment, and went to a school where she was taught by nuns.[5]:15

In 1918, Tovar's family moved north to Mexico City where her father worked for the National Railroad of Mexico in an administrative position.[6]:220


Career

Early career

Tovar was discovered by documentary filmmaker Robert Flaherty in Mexico City. Tovar had performed in a dance class and was invited, along with other girls, to do a screen test as part of a competition. Tovar won first place.[6]:220–221 The prize was a 6-month probation period, followed by a 7-year contract at $150/week, to Fox Studios.[5]:20–25[6]:221 The studio had realized they could make money by simultaneously shooting Spanish-language movies of English language studio productions, so had been casting for Spanish stars.[3] She moved to Hollywood in November 1928 with her maternal grandmother, Lucy Sullivan.[5]:29

Tovar, under contract, was required to study intensively to enhance her skills for films. Her weekly schedule included guitar, two hours four days; Spanish dances, one hour three days; dramatics, one-half hour two days; and English, one hour every day. Her accent was considered an asset in talking motion pictures. Her English improved significantly in just seven months from the time she arrived in Hollywood in January 1929, when she could not say "good morning" in English. To improve her English, she attended talkies; she also learned new words and how to say them by reading voraciously. In 1929, Tovar appeared in the films The Veiled Woman with Bela Lugosi (now thought to be a lost film) and The Cock-Eyed World.

In 1930, she was mentioned for leads in two talkies starring Douglas Fairbanks, Sr. and Richard Barthelmess. Fairbanks put off the filming of what became The Exile. After his death, the film was made in 1947 by his son, Douglas, Jr., directed by Max Ophüls.


 Spanish language movies

Lupita's future husband, producer Paul Kohner, convinced Carl Laemmle to make Spanish language movies that could be shot simultaneously at night with their English originals.[7]

In 1930, Tovar starred opposite Antonio Moreno in La Voluntad del Muerto, the Spanish-language version of The Cat Creeps and was based on the John Willard mystery play, The Cat and the Canary. Both The Cat Creeps and La Voluntad del muerto were remakes of The Cat and the Canary (1927). Casting was done in July 1930 with the film being released later the same year. The Spanish version was directed by George Melford and, like the Spanish-language version of Drácula, was filmed at night using the same sets as those used for filming the English-language version during the day.

Tovar shot Drácula, in 1930, when she was 20 years old. The film was produced by her soon-to-be husband, Paul Kohner.[3]


In 1931, Tovar starred in the film Santa, the first to have synchronized sound and image on the same celluloid strip.[8]

The film was based on a famous book featuring an innocent girl from the country who has an affair with a soldier and then tragically becomes a prostitute. Santa was such a hit that the Mexican government issued a postage stamp featuring Tovar as Santa.[3][7]

In 2006, Santa was shown in a celebratory screening by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences called "A Salute to Lupita Tovar" that featured a conversation between Tovar and film historian Bob Dickson. The event was in honor of Tovar.[9]


Other films

In 1931, Melford directed Tovar in another Universal picture, East of Borneo, which starred Rose Hobart. Tovar also worked on films at Columbia Pictures. Although she herself did not make any silent films, with her earliest films released by Fox Film Corporation in the Fox Movietone sound-on-film system, some may have been released in silent versions for theaters not yet equipped for sound.

Susan Kohner, Paul Kohner, Lupita Tovar Kohner

Personal life

Tovar went by the nickname Lupita since she was a girl.[5]:1

During filming of Santa, which was done in Mexico, producer Paul Kohner had to return to Europe because his father was sick. It was this separation, and another the next year when Kohner was producing a film for Universal Pictures in Europe, that made Tovar realize she loved Kohner. Kohner proposed on the phone—he had previously tried to give her a ring—and Tovar went to Czechoslovakia to meet him. They were married, by a rabbi, in Czechoslovakia on October 30, 1932, at Kohner's parents' home.[6]:226–227

In 1936, the couple had a daughter, Susan Kohner, a film and television actress, and, in 1939, a son, Paul Julius "Pancho" Kohner, Jr., a director and producer.[10][11] Their grandsons, Chris and Paul Weitz, are successful film directors.

Tovar owned a bassinet that would be used by several well known New Yorkers, including Julie Baumgold, a writer and her husband Edward Kosner, publisher of New York; Elizabeth Sobieski, a novelist and mother of actress Leelee Sobieski, Judy Licht, a TV newswoman, and her husband Jerry Della Femina, an advertising executive.[12]

Tovar died at the age of 106 on 12 November 2016 in Los Angeles of heart disease, just one day after her daughter Susan Kohner's 80th birthday.[13][14][15]


Lupita Tover is buried at Hillside Memorial Park in Culver City, California. 





Awards

2001: Academia Mexicana de Artes y Ciencias Cinematográficas (Mexican Academy of Arts and Sciences), Lifetime Achievement Award at the XLIII Ceremonia de Entrega del Arielrecibió el Ariel de Oro[16]


Filmography

1929: The Veiled Woman (Fox) as Young Girl
1929: Joy Street (Fox)
1929: The Cock-Eyed World (Fox) in bit part (uncredited)
1929: The Black Watch (Fox) in bit part (uncredited)


1930: La Voluntad del Muerto (Universal) 
(Spanish language version of The Cat Creeps) as Anita

1931: Estamos en París (short)


1931: Drácula (Universal) (Spanish language version of Dracula) as Eva


1931: Carne de Cabaret (Columbia) 
(Spanish version of Ten Cents a Dance) as Dorothy O'Neil

1931: Yankee Don (Richard Talmadge Productions) as Juanita
1931: El Tenorio del Harem (Universal) as Fátima
1931: East of Borneo (Universal) as Neila


1931: Border Law (Columbia) as Tonita

1932: Santa (Compañia Nacional Productora de Peliculas) as Santa
1934: Vidas Rotas (Inca) (Spanish)
1935: Broken Lives as Marcela
1935: Alas Sobre del Chaco (Universal) 
(Spanish language version of Storm Over the Andes) as Teresa


1936: The Invader aka An Old Spanish Custom 
(British and Continental Films) as Lupita Melez

1936: Mariguana (Mexican) as Irene Heredia


1936: El Capitán Tormenta (Grand National) 
(Spanish language version of Captain Calamity) as Magda

1938: Blockade (United Artists) as Cabaret Girl
1938: El Rosario de Amozoc (Mexican) as Rosario
1938: María (Mexican) as María


1939: The Fighting Gringo (RKO) as Anita "Nita" del Campo

1939: Tropic Fury (Universal) as Maria Scipio


1939: South of the Border (Republic) as Dolores Mendoza

1940: Green Hell (Universal) as Native Girl
1940: The Westerner (United Artists) as Teresita (uncredited)


1941: Two Gun Sheriff (Republic) as Nita

1943: Resurrección (Mexican)
1944: Gun to Gun (Warner Bros.) (short) as Dolores Diego
1944: Miguel Strogoff (El Correo del Zar) (Mexican) as Nadia Fedorova
1945: The Crime Doctor's Courage (Columbia) as Dolores Bragga
1952: Invitation Playhouse: Mind Over Murder (TV series), 1 episode: "Winner Take Nothing"
1988: Universal Horror as Interviewee


References

1. "Guadalupe Lupita Kohner (1952) – New York, New York Passenger and Crew Lists". FamilySearch.
2. "Passenger Manifest – Pan American World Airways, Inc.: Guadalupe Lupita Kohner -- Paris to New York (1952)". FamilySearch. 28 October 1952.
3. Montagne, Renee (15 February 2008). "Lupita Tovar, Mexico's Sultry Screen 'Sweetheart'". Morning Edition. NPR.
4. Marble, Steve. "Lupita Tovar, a Mexican star in Hollywood's golden era, dies at 106". Los Angeles Times. "Santa" was probably not the first Mexican "talkie," but it was certainly one of the first commercial breakthroughs of the sound era in Spanish-language cinema.
5. Tovar, Lupita; Kohner, Pancho (2011). Lupita Tovar: The Sweetheart of Mexico: A Memoir as Told to Her Son Pancho Kohner. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corp. ISBN 978-1-4568-7736-1. OCLC 755706899.
6. Ankerich, Michael G. (2011). The Sound of Silence: Conversations with 16 Film and Stage Personalities Who Bridged the Gap between Silents and Talkies (Reprinted. ed.). Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland and Co. ISBN 978-0-7864-6383-1. OCLC 743217471.
7. Ankerich, Michael G. (28 July 2013). "Lupita Tovar, Still Carrying On". Close-Ups and Long Shots.
8. Gurza, Agustin (10 July 2001). "Milestone Mexican Film to Screen in L.A.: Movies * Its lead actress will appear at the showing of 'Santa', which synchronized image and sound on the same strip". Los Angeles Times.
9. King, Susan (6 December 2006). "Cine File: Academy parties like it's 1906". Los Angeles Times.
10. "Susanna Kohner – California Birth Index". FamilySearch.
11. "Paul Julius Kohner – California Birth Index". FamilySearch.
12. Nemy, Enid (9 April 1989). "New Yorkers, Etc". The New York Times.
13. "Muere Lupita Tovar, la primera "Santa" del cine sonoro mexicano" (in Spanish). Google.se.
14. "Lupita Tovar, protagonista de la primera película del cine sonoro mexicano, fallece a los 106 años – Periódico Noroeste" (in Spanish). Beta.noroeste.com.mx.
15. "Lupita Tovar Dead: 'Dracula' Actress Was 106". Hollywood Reporter.
16. Fitzgerald, Mike (2010). "An Interview With... Lupita Tovar". Western Clippings.


Further reading

Articles

Babcock, Muriel. "Wave of Popularity Sweeping Mexican Stars to Top Goes Marching On: Directors Tell How Latin-American Beauties Have Carved Niche for Themselves in Filmdom's Hall of Fame." Los Angeles Times. January 27, 1929. p. C11 (1 page).
Olean Herald, "Hollywood Sights and Sounds." Saturday Evening. July 20, 1929. p. 4.
Boland, Elena. "Aliens Retain Screen Niche: Sound Films Disclose Need of Many Accents Separate Pictures Made For Different Countries Certainty of Future Held as Settled Fact." Los Angeles Times. February 2, 1930, p. B11 (2 pages).
Kingsley, Grace. "Browning Picks Story and Star: Fairbanks Will Play Bandit in Tale of Spanish Days; Richard Keene Loaned to First National; Paul Page Has "Man Crazy" Role." Los Angeles Times. March 12, 1930, p. A8 (1 page).
Kingsley, Grace. "Duncan Sisters May Go Abroad: Joseph Santley Writes Story for Helen Twelvetrees Toreador Signs With First National for Film Norman Taurog Will Direct Ed Wynn Comedy." Los Angeles Times. July 23, 1930. p. 6 (1 page).
Kingsley, Grace. "Lupita Tovar Goes Abroad: Actress Will Meet Fiance, Paul Kohner, in Paris Capt. Mollison Decides Not to Become Actor Helen Mack Wins Lead With Ken Maynard." Los Angeles Times. August 27, 1932. p. 5 (1 page).
Kingsley, Grace. "Lupita Tovar, Kohner Marry: Producer and Actress Wed in Czechlo-Slovakia Gloria Stuart Takes Novel Trip as Air Mail Howard Hughes Searches for Beauty in New York." Los Angeles Times. November 2, 1932. p. 11 (1 page).
Weaver, Tom. "Bitten in Spanish," "Fangoria" #119. December 1992.


Archival material

Kohner Family Papers, ~1970-2008. Riverside, CA: University of California, Riverside. OCLC 194179883


Monographs

Ankerich, Michael G. The Sound of Silence: Conversations with 16 Film and Stage Personalities Who Bridged the Gap between Silents and Talkies. Reprinted. ed. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland and Co., 2011. Chapter 15, pp. 218–233. ISBN 978-0-786-46383-1. OCLC 743217471
Tovar, Lupita, and Pancho Kohner. Lupita Tovar: The Sweetheart of Mexico: A Memoir As Told to Her Son Pancho Kohner. Bloomington, IN: Xlibris Corp, 2011. ISBN 978-1-456-87736-1 OCLC 755706899[self-published source]
Kohner, Pancho. Lupita Tovar: La novia de México: Memorias, Tal y Como Fueron Relatadas a su Hijo. Create Space Independent Publishing Platform, 2012. ISBN 978-1-475-24469-4 OCLC 797334304


Saturday, November 10, 2018

"Teapot Dome Scandal" Industrialist Harry Ford Sinclair 1956 Calvary Cemetery


Harry Ford Sinclair (July 6, 1876 in Benwood, West Virginia - November 10, 1956 in Pasadena, California) was an American industrialist, founder of Sinclair Oil. He was implicated in the 1920s Teapot Dome Scandal, and served six months in prison for jury tampering. Afterwards he returned to his former life and enjoyed its prosperity until his death.

He was an avid owner of sports properties, one of the principal financial backers of baseball's Federal League and a force in U.S. thoroughbred racing. Horses from his stable won the Kentucky Derby and three Belmont Stakes.



Biography

Early life

Harry Sinclair was born in Benwood, West Virginia, now a suburb of the city of Wheeling. Sinclair grew up in Independence, Kansas. The son of a pharmacist, after finishing high school, he entered the pharmacy department of the University of Kansas, at Lawrence. He was working as a pharmacist in 1901 when the business failed. He then began selling lumber for derricks in the oil fields of southeastern Kansas. On the side, he started speculating in oil leases.[1] The opportunity in the rapidly expanding oil industry saw him become a lease broker and acquire an interest in the White Oil Company. In 1904, Sinclair married Elizabeth Farrell of Independence, Kansas. By the time he was thirty, he had become a millionaire.[1]



Oil business

In 1910, four businessmen: Eugene Frank Blaise, Charles J. Wrightsman, William Connelly, and Harry F. Sinclair bought the failed Farmers National Bank in Tulsa. They created a new entity, Exchange National Bank, and named Sinclair as President.[2] This bank, later renamed as the National Bank of Tulsa, was a forerunner of the present Bank of Oklahoma.



On May 1, 1916, the highly successful Sinclair formed Sinclair Oil from the assets of eleven small petroleum companies. In the same year, he bought the Cudahy Refining Company of Chicago, owner of several oil pipelines and refineries.[3] By the end of the 1920s, Sinclair Oil refineries had a production capacity of 80,000 barrels a day and had built almost 900 miles (1,400 km) of oil pipelines. Operations were expanded in various areas including a 12,000-acre (49 km2) coal mining property. The company was ranked as the seventh largest oil company in the United States and the largest in the Midwest.[3] Harry Sinclair's business acumen made him an important member of the local business community and he helped organize the State Bank of Commerce, which later was acquired by the First National Bank of Independence, of which Sinclair served on the board of directors.



Organized sports

Sinclair was one of the main financiers of baseball's Federal League.[4] He was the principal owner of that league's Indianapolis franchise. Following the 1914 season, he purchased the remainder of the team and moved them to Newark, New Jersey, where they became the Newark Peppers.[5] After the season, the Federal League cut a deal with the other two baseball leagues. Sinclair reportedly made $2 million on his investment.[6]



Sinclair invested a substantial amount of money in thoroughbred race horses, acquiring the prestigious Rancocas Stable in Jobstown in southwest New Jersey from the estate of Pierre Lorillard IV. One of the most successful stables in the late 19th century, Sinclair again made it a major force in thoroughbred racing during the 1920s. Under trainer Sam Hildreth, Sinclair's stable won the Kentucky Derby and three Belmont Stakes. Such was the fame of Rancocas Stable that the Pennsylvania Railroad named baggage car #5858 in its honor. Two of the stable's colts, Grey Lag and Zev, are in the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame.



Teapot Dome scandal

Harry Sinclair's high-profile image as a reputable American business leader and sportsman came into question in April 1922 when the Wall Street Journal reported that United States Secretary of the Interior Albert B. Fall had granted an oil lease to Sinclair Oil without competitive bidding. The oil field lease was for government land in Wyoming that had been created as an emergency reserve for the United States Navy. What became known as the Teapot Dome scandal, ultimately led to a United States Senate establishing a Committee on Public Lands and Surveys to conduct hearings into the circumstances surrounding the government oil lease. The result was a finding of fraud and corruption which led to a number of civil lawsuits and criminal charges against Harry Sinclair and others. In 1927 the United States Supreme Court declared the Sinclair oil lease had been corruptly obtained and ordered it canceled.


Albert B. Fall and Harry Sinclair

Two weeks after Harry Sinclair's trial began in October 1927, it abruptly ended when the judge declared a mistrial following evidence presented by the government prosecutors showing that Sinclair had hired a detective agency to shadow each member of the jury. Sinclair was charged with contempt of court, the case eventually winding up before the United States Supreme Court who, on June 3, 1929[7] upheld Sinclair's conviction. He was fined and sentenced to six and a half months[8] in prison, which he served as prisoner #10,520,[9] at the District of Columbia jail.

While in prison, Sinclair was allowed to work as both pharmacist and physician's assistant, and it was while working within these capacities that he was allowed to be taken by car to attend to the prisoners assigned to work details at the city wharfs.[10] Public attention and perceived favoritism prompted George S. Wilson, District Director of Public Welfare, to order an end to these rides, but rumors of Sinclair's preferential treatment continued.[11]

In 1929, Secretary Fall was found guilty of bribery, fined $100,000 and sentenced to one year in prison, making him the first Presidential cabinet member to go to prison for his actions in office.



Later life

At one time, Harry F. Sinclair owned this C.P.H. Gilbert designed mansion now known as the Harry F. Sinclair House, in New York City. After serving his short prison term Sinclair returned to his successful business. He had owned a luxurious French Renaissance-style château[12] on the southeast corner of Fifth Avenue and 79th Street in New York City. His reputation destroyed there, Sinclair sold the property in 1930. Located in the same area as several major museums, it was eventually acquired by the Ukrainian Institute of America and is now open to the public.



Harry Ford Sinclair retired as president of Sinclair Oil and Gas Company in January 1949.[3] He died a wealthy man in Pasadena, California in 1956 and was interred in the Roman Catholic Calvary Cemetery, East Los Angeles.








References 

1. Kansapedia. "Harry Ford Sinclair." Kansas Historical Society. [1]
2. "Historic Tulsa:The Bank at 320 South Boston"
3. Weaver, Bobby D. "Sinclair Oil and Refining Corporation." Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture. [2]
4. Suehsdorf, A. D. (1978). The Great American Baseball Scrapbook, p. 54. Random House. ISBN 0-394-50253-1.
5. Hoosiers article at Everything2
6. Newark Pepper article at Everything2
7. [3]
8. "Sinclair's Last Night In Prison". The Milwaukee Sentinel. 20 November 1929. 
9. "CORRUPTION: No. 10, 520". Time Magazine. Time Inc. 20 May 1929.
10. "CRIME: Discrimination". Time Magazine. Time Inc. 16 September 1929. 
11. A Fellow Prisoner (5 March 1930). "Sinclair Guest at Prison, Private Chef Cooked Food, Served It In Oil Man's Cell". The Pittsburg Press. 
12. Ukrainian Institute, originally the Isaac and Mary Fletcher House