Julius Henry "Groucho" Marx (October 2, 1890 – August 19, 1977) was an American comedian and film star famed as a master of wit. His rapid-fire delivery of innuendo-laden patter earned him many admirers.
He made 13 feature films with his siblings the Marx Brothers, of whom he was the third-born. He also had a successful solo career, most notably as the host of the radio and television game shows You Bet Your Life and Tell it to Groucho. His distinctive appearance, carried over from his days in vaudeville, included quirks such as glasses, cigars, and a thick greasepaint moustache and eyebrows.
Childhood and pre-Hollywood career
The Jewish Marx family grew up on East 93rd Street off Lexington Avenue in a neighborhood now known as Carnegie Hill on the Upper East Side of the borough of Manhattan, in New York City. The turn-of-the-century building that Harpo called "the first real home they ever knew" (in his memoir Harpo Speaks) was populated with European immigrants, mostly artisans - who included a glass blower. Just across the street were the oldest brownstones in the area, owned by people such as the well-connected Loew Brothers and William Orth.
Groucho's parents were Minnie Schoenberg Marx and Sam Marx (called "Frenchie" throughout his life). Minnie's brother was Al Schoenberg, who shortened his name to Al Shean when he went into show business as half of Gallagher and Shean, a noted vaudeville act of the early 20th century. According to Groucho, when Shean visited he would throw the local waifs a few coins so that when he knocked at the door he would be surrounded by adoring fans. Marx and his brothers respected his opinions and asked him on several occasions to write some material for them.
In a 1950 radio episode of You Bet Your Life, Groucho states that he was born in a room above a butcher's shop on 78th Street in New York City.
Minnie Marx did not have an entertainment industry career, but had intense ambition for her sons to go on the stage like their uncle. While pushing her eldest son Leonard (Chico Marx) in piano lessons, she found that Julius had a pleasant soprano voice and the ability to remain on key. Even though Julius's early career goal was to become a doctor, the family's need for income forced Julius out of school at the age of twelve. By that time, Julius had become a voracious reader, particularly fond of Horatio Alger. Throughout the rest of his life, Marx would overcome his lack of formal education by becoming very well-read.
After a few comically unsuccessful stabs at entry-level office work and other jobs suitable for adolescents, Julius took to the stage as a boy singer in 1905. Though he reputedly claimed that as a vaudevillian he was "hopelessly average," it was merely a wisecrack. By 1909, Minnie Marx successfully managed to assemble her sons into a low-quality vaudeville singing group. Billed as "The Four Nightingales," Julius, Milton (Gummo Marx), Arthur (originally Adolph; Harpo Marx), and another boy singer, Lou Levy, traveled the U.S. vaudeville circuits to little fanfare. After exhausting their prospects in the East, the family moved to La Grange, Illinois, to play the Midwest.
After a particularly dispiriting performance in Nacogdoches, Texas, Julius, Milton, and Arthur began cracking jokes onstage for their own amusement. Much to their surprise, the audience liked them better as comedians than singers. They modified the then-popular Gus Edwards comedy skit "School Days" and renamed it "Fun In Hi Skule." The Marx Brothers would perform variations on this routine for the next seven years.
For a time in vaudeville all the brothers performed using ethnic accents. Leonard, the oldest, developed the Italian accent he used as Chico Marx to convince some roving bullies that he was Italian, not Jewish. Julius Marx's character from "Fun In Hi Skule" was an ethnic German, so Julius played him with a German accent. However, after the sinking of the RMS Lusitania in 1915, public anti-German sentiment was widespread, and Marx's German character was booed, so he quickly dropped the accent and developed the fast-talking wise-guy character he would be remembered for.
The Marx Brothers became the biggest comedic stars of the Palace Theatre, which billed itself as the "Valhalla of Vaudeville." Brother Chico's deal-making skills resulted in three hit plays on Broadway. No comedy routine had ever infected the hallowed Broadway circuit.
All of this predated their Hollywood career. By the time the Marxes made their first movie, they were major stars with sharply honed skills, and when Groucho was relaunched to stardom on You Bet Your Life, he had already been performing successfully for half a century.
Groucho Marx made 26 movies, 13 of them with his brothers Chico and Harpo. Marx developed a routine as a wise-cracking hustler with a distinctive chicken-walking lope, an exaggerated greasepaint mustache and eyebrows, and an ever-present cigar, improvising insults to stuffy dowagers (often played by Margaret Dumont) and anyone else who stood in his way. As the Marx Brothers, he and his brothers starred in a series of popular stage shows and movies.
Their first movie was a silent film made in 1919 that was never released, and believed to have been destroyed at the time. A decade later, the team made some of their Broadway hits into movies, including The Cocoanuts and Animal Crackers. Other successful films were Monkey Business, Horse Feathers, Duck Soup and A Night at the Opera. One quip from Marx concerned his response to Sam Wood, the director of the classic film A Night at the Opera. Furious with the Marx Brothers' ad-libs and antics on the set, Wood yelled in disgust: "I cannot make actors out of clay." Groucho responded, "Nor can you make a director out of Wood."
Marx worked as a radio comedian and show host. One of his earliest stints was in a short-lived series in 1932 Flywheel, Shyster, and Flywheel, co-starring Chico. Most of the scripts and discs were thought to have been destroyed, but all but one of the scripts were found in 1988 in the Library of Congress.
In 1947, Marx was chosen to host a radio quiz program You Bet Your Life broadcast by ABC and then CBS, before moving over to NBC radio and television in 1950. Filmed before a live audience, the television show consisted of Marx interviewing the contestants and ad libbing jokes, before playing a brief quiz. The show was responsible for the phrases "Say the secret woid [word] and divide $100" (that is, each contestant would get $50); and "Who's buried in Grant's Tomb?" or "What color is the White House?" (asked when Marx felt sorry for a contestant who had not won anything). It ran for eleven years on television.
Groucho was the subject of an urban legend, about a supposed response to a contestant who had nine children which supposedly brought down the house. In response to Marx asking in disbelief why she had so many children, the contestant replied "I love my husband," to which Marx responded, "I love my cigar, too, but I take it out of my mouth once in a while." Groucho often asserted in interviews that this exchange never took place, but it remains one of the most often quoted "Groucho-isms" nonetheless.
Throughout his career he introduced a number of memorable songs in films, including "Hooray for Captain Spaulding" and "Hello, I Must Be Going", in Animal Crackers, "Whatever It Is, I'm Against It", "Everyone Says I Love You" and "Lydia the Tattooed Lady." Frank Sinatra, who once quipped that the only thing he could do better than Marx was sing, made a film with Marx and Jane Russell in 1951 entitled Double Dynamite.
Mustache, eyebrows and walk
Harpo and Chico were difficult to recognize without their wigs and costumes, but it was almost impossible to recognize Groucho without his trademark glasses, or fake eyebrows and mustache.
The greasepaint mustache and eyebrows originated spontaneously prior to a vaudeville performance when he did not have time to apply the pasted-on mustache he had been using (or, according to his autobiography, simply did not enjoy the removal of the mustache every night because of the effects of tearing an adhesive bandage off the same patch of skin every night). After applying the greasepaint mustache, a quick glance in the mirror revealed his natural hair eyebrows were too undertoned and did not match the rest of his face, so Marx added the greasepaint to his eyebrows and headed for the stage. The absurdity of the greasepaint was never discussed on-screen, but in a famous scene in Duck Soup, where both Chicolini (Chico) and Pinky (Harpo) disguise themselves as Groucho, they are briefly seen applying the greasepaint, implicitly answering any question a viewer might have had about where he got his mustache and eyebrows.
Marx was asked to do the greasepaint mustache once more for You Bet Your Life, but refused, opting instead to grow a real one, which he wore for the rest of his life.
He did paint the old character mustache over his real one on a few rare performing occasions, including a TV sketch with Jackie Gleason on the latter's variety show in the 1960s (in which they performed a variation on the song "Positively Mr. Gallagher, Absolutely Mr. Shean," written by Marx's uncle Al Shean) and the 1968 Otto Preminger film Skidoo. In his 70s at the time, Marx remarked on his appearance: "I looked like I was embalmed." He played a mob boss called "God" and, according to Marx, "both my performance and the film were God-awful!"
The exaggerated walk, with one hand on the small of his back and his torso bent almost 90 degrees at the waist was a parody of a fad from the 1880s and 1890s. Then, fashionable young men of the upper classes would affect a walk with their right hand held fast to the base of their spines, and with a slight lean forward at the waist and a very slight twist toward the right with the left shoulder, allowing the left hand to swing free with the gait. Edmund Morris, in his biography The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt, describes a young Roosevelt, newly elected to the State Assembly, walking into the House Chamber for the first time in this trendy, affected gait, somewhat to the amusement of the older and more rural Members who were present. Groucho exaggerated this fad to a marked degree, and the comedy effect was enhanced by how out of date the fashion was by the 1920s and 30s.
Marx's three marriages all ended in divorce. His first wife was chorus girl Ruth Johnson (married February 4, 1920, divorced July 15, 1942). He was 29 and she 19 at the time of their wedding. The couple had two children, Arthur Marx and Miriam Marx. His second wife was Kay Marvis, née Catherine Dittig (married February 24, 1945, divorced May 12, 1951), former wife of Leo Gorcey. Groucho was 54 and Kay 24 at the time of their marriage. They had a daughter, Melinda Marx. His third wife was actress Eden Hartford (married July 17, 1954, divorced December 4, 1969). She was 20 when she married the 63-year-old Groucho.
During the early 1950s, Groucho described his perfect woman: “Someone who looks like Marilyn Monroe and talks like George S. Kaufman.”
Often when the Marxes arrived at restaurants, there would be a long wait for a table. "Just tell the maître d' who we are" his wife would say. (In his pre-mustache days, he was rarely recognized in public.) Groucho would say, "OK, OK. Good evening, sir. My name is Jones. This is Mrs. Jones, and here are all the little Joneses." Now his wife would be furious and insist that he tell the maître d' the truth. "Oh, all right," said Groucho. "My name is Smith. This is Mrs. Smith, and here are all the little Smiths."
Similar anecdotes are corroborated by Groucho's friends, not one of whom went without being publicly embarrassed by Groucho on at least one occasion. Once, at a restaurant (the most common location of Groucho's antics), a fan came up to him and said, "Excuse me, but aren't you Groucho Marx?" "Yes," Groucho answered annoyedly. "Oh, I'm your biggest fan! Could I ask you a favor?" the man asked. "Sure, what is it?" asked the even-more annoyed Groucho. "See my wife sitting over there? She's an even bigger fan of yours than I am! Would you be willing to insult her?" Groucho replied, "Sir, if my wife looked like that, I wouldn't need any help thinking of insults." Also, Groucho's son, Arthur, published a brief account of an incident that occurred when Arthur was a child. The family was going through airport customs and, while filling out a form, Groucho listed his name as "Julius Henry Marx" and his occupation as "smuggler." Thereafter, chaos ensued.
Later in life, Groucho would sometimes note to talk-show hosts, not entirely jokingly, that he was unable to actually insult anyone, because the target of his comment assumed it was a Groucho-esque joke and would laugh.
Off-stage, Groucho was a voracious reader. He often pointed out that he had only a grammar school education, and he compensated for this by reading everything he got his hands on. His knowledge of literature from all eras was extraordinary. Typical of his achievements, this one was discussed only demurely by Groucho himself: "I think TV is very educational," he once said. "Every time someone turns on a TV, I go in the other room and read." His friend Dick Cavett, speaking of Groucho and referencing a certain philosopher's writing, said, "I, with my college education, had merely heard of the book, but Groucho had actually read it." Cavett also remarked that Groucho could never end a letter; there was always at least one postscript. In one letter he recalls, Groucho wrote, "P.S. Did you ever notice that Peter O'Toole has a double-phallic name?"
He was also an amateur guitarist, most prominently playing the song "Everyone Says I Love You" on a Gibson L-5 in Horse Feathers. He was considered by Will Rogers to be as good on his guitar as Harpo was on the harp and Chico was on the piano.
Despite this lack of formal education, he wrote many books, including his autobiography, Groucho and Me (1959) and Memoirs of a Mangy Lover (1963). He was personal friends with such literary figures as T. S. Eliot and Carl Sandburg. Much of his personal correspondence with those and other figures is featured in the book The Groucho Letters (1967) with an introduction and commentary on the letters written by Groucho, who donated his letters to the Library of Congress.
Although Irving Berlin quipped, "The world would not be in such a snarl,/ had Marx been Groucho instead of Karl," Groucho's political views were left-wing. Marx & Lennon: The Parallel Sayings was published in 2005; the book records similar sayings between Groucho Marx and John Lennon.
You Bet Your Life
Groucho's radio life hadn't been as successful as his life on stage and in film, though historians such as Gerald Nachman and Michael Barson suggest that, in the case of the single-season Flywheel, Shyster, and Flywheel (1932), the failure may have been a combination of a poor time slot and the Marx Brothers' returning to Hollywood to make another film.
In the mid-1940s, during a depressing lull in his career (his radio show Blue Ribbon Town had failed to hold on, and the Marx Brothers looked finished as film performers), Groucho was scheduled to appear on a radio show with Bob Hope. Annoyed that he was made to wait in the waiting room for 40 minutes, Groucho went on the air in a foul mood. Hope started by saying, "Why, it's Groucho Marx, ladies and gentlemen. (applause) Groucho, what brings you here from the hot desert?" Groucho retorted, "Hot desert my foot, I've been standing in the cold waiting room for 40 minutes." Groucho continued to ignore the script, and although Hope was a formidable ad-libber in his own right, he couldn't begin to keep up with Groucho, who lengthened the scene well beyond its allotted time slot with a veritable onslaught of improvised wisecracks.
Listening in on the show was producer John Guedel, who got a brainstorm. He approached Groucho about doing a quiz show. "A quiz show? Only actors who are completely washed up resort to a quiz show." Undeterred, Guedel explained that the quiz would be only a backdrop for Groucho's interviews of people, and the storm of ad-libbing that they would elicit. Groucho said, "Well, I've had no success in radio, and I can't hold on to a sponsor. At this point I'll try anything."
You Bet Your Life premiered in October 1947 on radio on ABC (which aired it from 1947–49), and then on CBS (1949–50), and finally NBC, continuing until May 1961—on radio only, 1947–1950; on both radio and television, 1950–1959; and on television only, 1959-1961. The show was an utter sensation, one of the most popular in the history of radio and television. With one of the best announcers and, as it turns out, straight men in the business, George Fenneman, as his faithful foil, Groucho slayed his audiences with extraordinary improvised conversation, usually with the most ordinary of guests.
The program's theme music was an instrumental version of "Hooray for Captain Spaulding," which became increasingly identified as Groucho's personal theme song. Groucho released a record of the song with the Ken Lane singers and orchestra directed by Victor Young in 1952. Another interesting recording made by Groucho during this period was "The Funniest Song in the World," released on the Young Peoples' Records label in 1949. It was a series of five original children's songs with a connecting narrative about a monkey and his fellow zoo creatures.
By the time You Bet Your Life debuted on TV on October 5, 1950, Groucho had grown a real mustache (which he had already sported earlier, in the 1947 film Copacabana and the 1949 film Love Happy).
During a tour of Germany in 1958, accompanied by then-wife Eden, daughter Melinda, Robert Dwan and Dwan's daughter Judith, he climbed a pile of rubble that marked the site of Adolf Hitler's bunker, the site of Hitler's death, and performed a two-minute Charleston. He later remarked to Richard J. Anobile in The Marx Brothers Scrapbook, "Not much satisfaction after he killed six million Jews!"
In 1960, Groucho, a lifelong devotee of the comic operas of Gilbert and Sullivan, appeared as Koko the Lord High Executioner in a televised production of The Mikado on NBC's Bell Telephone Hour.
Another TV show, Tell It To Groucho, premiered January 11, 1962 on CBS, but only lasted five months. On October 1, 1962, Groucho, after acting as occasional guest host of The Tonight Show during the six-month interval between Jack Paar and Johnny Carson, introduced Carson as the new host. In 1965, a weekly show for British TV titled Groucho was poorly received and only lasted 11 weeks.
He appeared as a gangster named God in the movie Skidoo (1968), co-starring Jackie Gleason and Carol Channing, directed by Otto Preminger, and released by the studio where he got his Hollywood start, Paramount Pictures. The film got almost universally negative reviews. As a side note, writer Paul Krassner published a story in the February 1981 issue of High Times, relating how Groucho prepared for the LSD-themed movie by taking a dose of the drug in Krassner's company, and had a moving, largely pleasant experience. Four years later came Groucho's last theatrical film appearance; a brief, uncredited cameo in Michael Ritchie's The Candidate (1972).
In the early 1970s, largely at the behest of companion Erin Fleming, Groucho made a comeback with a live one-man show, including one recorded at Carnegie Hall in 1972 and released as a double album, An Evening with Groucho, on A&M Records. He also made an appearance on a short-lived variety show hosted by Bill Cosby, who idolized Groucho, in 1973.
He developed friendships with rock star Alice Cooper -- the two were photographed together for Rolling Stone magazine—and television host Dick Cavett, becoming a frequent guest on Cavett's late-night talk show. He befriended Elton John when the British singer was staying in California in 1972, insisting on calling him "John Elton." According to writer Philip Norman, Groucho jokingly pointed his index fingers at as if holding a pair of six-shooters, Elton John put up his hands and said, "Don't shoot me, I'm only the piano player," thereby naming the album he had just completed. Elton John accompanied Groucho to a performance of Jesus Christ Superstar. As the lights went down, Groucho called out, "Does it have a happy ending?" And during the Crucifixion scene, he declared, "This is sure to offend the Jews."
Groucho's previous works regained popularity and were accompanied by new books of transcribed conversations by Richard J. Anobile and Charlotte Chandler. In a BBC interview in 1975, Groucho called his greatest achievement having a book selected for cultural preservation in the American Library of Congress. As a man who never had formal schooling, to have his writings declared to be culturally important was a point of great satisfaction. He had become quite frail by this time and his last few years were accompanied by descent into senility and a controversy over a companionship he had developed with Erin Fleming, which consequently raised disputes over his estate.
Groucho accepted an honorary Academy Award in 1974, his final major public appearance, at which he took a bow for all the Marx Brothers and Margaret Dumont. His final appearance was a brief sketch with George Burns in the Bob Hope TV Special Joys in 1976.
But by the following year his health had begun to fail. When Gummo died, aged 84, on April 21, 1977, in Palm Springs, California, the death of his younger brother was not reported to Groucho because it was thought too detrimental to his health.
Groucho maintained his irrepressible sense of humor to the very end, however. George Fenneman, his radio and TV announcer, good-natured foil, and lifelong friend, often related a story in subsequent years of one of his final visits to Groucho's home: When the time came to end the visit, Fenneman lifted Groucho from his wheelchair, put his arms around his torso, and began to "walk" the frail comedian backwards across the room toward his bed. As he did, he heard a weak voice in his ear: "Fenneman," whispered Groucho, "you always were a lousy dancer."
Marx's children, particularly his son Arthur, felt strongly that Fleming was pushing their weak father beyond his physical and mental limits. Writer Mark Evanier concurred. Marx was hospitalized for pneumonia on June 22, 1977, and died on August 19, 1977, at Cedars Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles.
He was cremated and the ashes were interred in the Eden Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles. Groucho had the longest lifespan of all the Marx Brothers and was survived only by younger brother Zeppo, who outlived him by two years, dying in 1979 at the age of 78. Groucho's death was somewhat overshadowed because it occurred three days after that of Elvis Presley. In an interview, he jokingly suggested his epitaph read: "Excuse me, I can't stand up," but his mausoleum marker bears only his stage name, a Star of David, and the years of his birth and death.
Groucho-like characters and references have long appeared in popular culture, some aimed at audiences who would never have seen a Marx Brothers movie, providing a testament to the character's lasting appeal. Groucho's glasses, nose, mustache, and cigar have become icons of comedy—to this day, glasses with fake noses and mustaches (referred to as "Groucho glasses," "nose-glasses," and other names) are still sold by novelty and costume shops.
Actor Frank Ferrante has performed as Groucho Marx on stage for more than two decades. He continues to tour under rights granted by the Marx family in a one-man show entitled An Evening With Groucho in theaters throughout the United States and Canada with piano accompanist Jim Furmston. In the late 1980s Ferrante starred as Groucho in the off-Broadway and London show Groucho: A Life in Revue penned by Groucho's son Arthur. Ferrante portrayed the comedian from age 15 to 85. The show was later filmed for PBS in 2001.
Gabe Kaplan has appeared in a filmed version. Alan Alda often vamped as Groucho on M*A*S*H  and a minor semi-recurring character in the series (played by Loudon Wainwright III) was named Captain Calvin Spalding in a nod towards Groucho's character in Animal Crackers, Captain Geoffrey T. Spaulding.
Two of the British Rock Band Queen's albums, A Night at the Opera (1975) and A Day at the Races (1976), are named after Marx Brothers films. A long-running ad campaign for Vlasic Pickles features an animated stork that imitates Groucho's mannerisms and voice. On the famous Hollywood Sign in California, one of the "O"s is dedicated to Groucho. Alice Cooper contributed over $27,000 to remodel the sign, in memory of his friend.
The BBC remade the radio sitcom Flywheel, Shyster and Flywheel, with contemporary actors playing the parts of the original cast. The series was repeated on digital radio station BBC7. Scottish playwright Louise Oliver wrote a play named "Waiting For Groucho" about Chico and Harpo waiting for Groucho to turn up for the filming of their last project together. This was performed by Glasgow theatre company Rhymes with Purple Productions at the Edinburgh Fringe and in Glasgow and Hamilton in 2007-08. Groucho was played by Scottish actor Frodo McDaniel.
In the Italian comic Dylan Dog, the main character's assistant is a Groucho impersonator whose character became his permanent personality. Now he lives and works with Dylan Dog as his professional sidekick.
Quotations about Groucho Marx
"Groucho Marx was the best comedian this country ever produced. [...] He is simply unique in the same way that Picasso or Stravinsky are." —Woody Allen
A famous French witticism (often attributed to Jean-Luc Godard) was, Je suis Marxiste, tendance Groucho, that is, "I'm a Marxist of the Groucho tendency". This line was notably heard in the 1972 comedy by Claude Lelouch "L'Aventure c'est l'Aventure" (starring Lino Ventura, Aldo Maccione, Jacques Brel, Johnny Hallyday and Charles Denner), where the would-be heroes get involved with a Central American guerilla; it spread to other nations as well in the 1960s and 1970s.
In the United States, the Youth International Party, a 1960s-1970s ad-hoc political group of Anarcho-Marxists known for street theatre and pranks, were denounced in a Communist newspaper editorial as "Groucho Marxists."
Yours for the Asking (as sunbather, uncredited) (1936), released by Paramount Pictures
Copacabana (1947), released by United Artists
Mr. Music (as himself) (1950), released by Paramount Pictures
Double Dynamite (as Emile J. Keck) (1951), released by RKO
A Girl in Every Port (as Benjamin Linn) (1952), released by RKO
Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter? (1957) (as George Schmidlap, uncredited), released by 20th Century Fox
The Story of Mankind, (1957) (Harpo and Chico also appeared, but in individual scenes)
The Mikado (as Koko) (1960), made for television
Skidoo (as God) (1968), released by Paramount
Hollywood on Parade No. 11 (1933)
Screen Snapshots Series 16, No. 3 (1936)
Sunday Night at the Trocadero (1937)
Screen Snapshots: The Great Al Jolson (1955)
Showdown at Ulcer Gulch (1956) (voice)
Screen Snapshots: Playtime in Hollywood (1956)
1.^ WWI draft registration as Julius Henry Marx, Chicago, Illinois Roll #1452474 - is noted that the 1900 census has him born in October 1890.
2.^ "Groucho Marx, Comedian, Dead. Movie Star and TV Host Was 86. Master of the Insult Groucho Marx, Film Comedian and Host of 'You Bet Your Life,' Dies.". New York Times. August 20, 1977, Saturday. "Los Angeles, August 19, 1977 Groucho Marx, the comedian, died tonight at the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center here after failing to recover from a respiratory ailment that hospitalized him June 22. He was 86 years and 10 months old."
3.^ "Groucho Marx Biography". groucho-marx.com. http://www.groucho-marx.com/bio.html. Retrieved 2008-06-25.
4.^ Mikkelson, Barbara and David P.. "Groucho Marx: "I Love My Cigar"". snopes.com. http://www.snopes.com/radiotv/tv/grouchocigar.asp. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
5.^ Boxoffice, 3 June 1939, p. 89.
6.^ Eden Hartford Biography, imdb.com.
7.^ Marx, Arthur (1954). Life With Groucho. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 294.
8.^ "Irving Berlin Famous Quote about World". Quotes Daddy. http://www.quotesdaddy.com/quote/658668/irving-berlin/the-world-would-not-be-in-such-a-snarl-had-marx-been. Retrieved 2010-06-28.
9.^ Hallett, Judith Dwan. "What's So Funny & Why?". Sarah Lawrence College. http://www.slc.edu/magazine/whats-so-funny/Whats_So_Funny_and_Why.php. Retrieved 2007-07-29.
10.^ Point of View, Mark Evanier, 1999-06-04, retrieved, 2007-08-09.
11.^ Point of View, Mark Evanier, 1999-06-11, retrieved, 2007-08-09.
12.^ "Gummo Marx, Managed Comedians.". New York Times. "Palm Springs, California, April 21, 1977 (Reuters) Gummo Marks, an original member of the Marx brothers' comedy team, died here today. He was 84 years old."
13.^ "George Fenneman, Sidekick To Groucho Marx, Dies at 77" New York Times (June 5, 1997). Retrieved 2010-06-21.
14.^ Groucho Marx at Find a Grave
15.^ Internet Movie Database. Groucho (1982).
16.^ Twenga.co.uk M.A.S.H. - Series 1 (1972); description of DVD.
17.^ "Stuart Elliott, Pink or Blue? These Bundles of Joy Are Always Green, New York Times, 2007-05-30.
18.^ Rhymes with Purple Productions - Theatre, Cabaret, Burlesque.
Miriam Marx Allen, Love, Groucho: Letters From Groucho Marx to His Daughter Miriam (1992, ISBN 0-571-12915-3)
Charlotte Chandler, Hello, I Must Be Going (1979, ISBN 0-140-05222-4)
Stefan Kanfer, Groucho: The Life and Times of Julius Henry Marx (2000, ISBN 0-375-70207-5)
Simon Louvish, Monkey Business: The Lives and Legends of the Marx Brothers (2001, ISBN 0-312-25292-7)
Arthur Marx, Life With Groucho (1954, revised as My Life with Groucho: A Son's Eye View 1988, ISBN 0-330-31132-8))
Arthur Marx, Son of Groucho (1972, ISBN 0-679-50355-2)
Groucho Marx, Groucho and Me (1959, ISBN 0-306-80666-5)
Groucho Marx, Memoirs of a Mangy Lover (1963, ISBN 0-306-81104-9)
Groucho Marx, The Groucho Letters: Letters From and To Groucho Marx (1967, ISBN 0-306-80607-X)
Groucho Marx, Beds (1977, ISBN 0-672-52224-1)
Harpo Marx, Harpo Speaks (1961, revised as Harpo Speaks! 1985, ISBN 0-879-10036-2)
Glenn Mitchell, The Marx Brothers Encyclopedia (1996, ISBN 0-713-47838-1)
Steve Stoliar, Raised Eyebrows: My Years Inside Groucho's House (1996, ISBN 1-881-64973-3)
Julius H. (Groucho) Marx v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 29 T.C. 88 (1957)