Friday, March 29, 2019

"Trouble with Angels" Actress & Artist June Harding 1940-2019 Memorial Video

June Harding (September 7, 1940 – March 26, 2019) was an American actress who appeared in several 1960s TV shows. 

She is best known for appearing opposite Hayley Mills and Rosalind Russell in the Columbia Pictures film The Trouble with Angels. Like Mills, Harding chose not to reprise her role of Rachel Devery in the film's sequel, Where Angels Go, Trouble Follows.

In the summer of 1961, Harding acted in a stock company at the Cecilwood Theater in Fishkill, New York.[1] On Broadway, she played Liz Michaelson in Take Her, She's Mine (1961).[2]

Harding played Ann on the ABC medical drama Matt Lincoln in 1970-1971.[3] 

She was a regular cast member on The Richard Boone Show television anthology on NBC in 1963-1964.[4] 

She appeared in two episodes of The Fugitive: as Joanna Mercer ("Moon Child," 1965); as Cathy ("Ten Thousand Pieces of Silver," 1966).

Harding quietly retired from the screen in 1970. She became a successful artist in Blue Hill, Maine, with most of her pictures having a cat theme.


The Richmond Times-Dispatch reported that June Harding died of natural causes in her hometown of Emporia, Virginia.[5] According to her brother John Harding On Facebook, June died while in hospice care in Deer Isle, Maine. A celebration of life is planned in her hometown of Emporia, VA at 11am on April 13, 2019 at Monumental Methodist Church.


Harding received a Theatre World Award for her acting in Cry of the Raindrop in 1960-1961.[6]


1. "(photo caption)." Poughkeepsie Journal. New York, Poughkeepsie. June 25, 1961. p. 1C. 
2. "June Harding." Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. 
3. Terrace, Vincent (1999). Radio Programs, 1924-1984: A Catalog of More Than 1800 Shows. McFarland and Company, Inc. p. 667. ISBN 978-0-7864-4513-4. 
4. Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle F. (2009). The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows, 1946-Present. Random House Publishing Group. p. 1153. ISBN 9780307483201. 
5. "Obituary". Virginia Times-Dispatch. 26 March 2019. p. 1. 
6. "Theatre World Award Recipients." Theatre World Awards.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

"Here Come the Brides" Actress Mitzi Hoag 1932-2019 Memorial Video

Mitzi Hoag (born Margaret Myrtle Hoag; September 25, 1932 – February 26, 2019) was an American actress. Over the course of her career, she appeared in more than 73 different TV shows and movies. Notable among these are recurring roles in Bonanza, Here Come the Brides, Little House on the Prairie, The Partridge Family, and We'll Get By.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

"Easy-E" Rapper Eric Lynn Wright 1995 Rose Hills Cemetery

Eric Lynn Wright[5][6][7] (September 7, 1964 – March 26, 1995), known professionally as Eazy-E, was an American rapper, record producer, and entrepreneur. Dubbed the "Godfather of Gangsta Rap," he gained prominence for his work with N.W.A, where he has been credited for pushing the boundaries of lyrical and visual content in mainstream popular music.

Born and raised in Compton, Eazy-E faced several legal troubles before founding the Ruthless Records record label in 1986. After beginning a short solo career, where he worked heavily with Ice Cube and Dr. Dre, the trio came together to form the group N.W.A later that year. As a member of the group, he released the controversial album, Straight Outta Compton (1988), which tackled many socio-political issues. The album has been regarded as one of the greatest albums of all-time, and one of the most influential in the genre. The group released their final studio album three years later, and disbanded shortly after, due to long-standing financial disputes.

Eazy-E then resumed his solo career, where he released two EPs, which drew inspiration from funk music, contemporary hip-hop, and comedians.[8] He also engaged in a high-profile feud with Dr. Dre, before being hospitalized with AIDS in 1995. He died a month after his hospitalization.

Early life and Ruthless Records investment

Eric Wright was born to Richard and Kathie Wright on September 7, 1964, in Compton, California, a Los Angeles suburb notorious for gang activity and crime.[9][10] His father was a postal worker and his mother was a grade school administrator.[11] Wright dropped out of high school in the tenth grade,[12] but later received a high-school general equivalency diploma (GED).[13]

No one survived on the streets without a protective mask. No one survived naked. You had to have a role. You had to be "thug," "playa," "athlete," "gangsta," or "dope man." Otherwise, there was only one role left to you: "victim."
-- Jerry Heller on Eazy-E[14]

Wright supported himself primarily by selling drugs, introduced to the occupation by his cousin.[12] Wright's friend Jerry Heller admits that he witnessed Wright selling marijuana, but says that he never saw him sell cocaine. As Heller noted in his book Ruthless: A Memoir, Wright's "dope dealer" label was part of his "self-forged armor."[14] Wright was also labeled as a "thug." Heller explains: "The hood where he grew up was a dangerous place. He was a small guy. 'Thug' was a role that was widely understood on the street; it gave you a certain level of protection in the sense that people hesitated to fuck with you. Likewise, 'dope dealer' was a role that accorded you certain privileges and respect."[14]

In 1986, at the age of 22, Wright had allegedly earned as much as US$250,000 from dealing drugs. However, after his cousin was shot and killed, he decided that he could make a better living in the Los Angeles hip hop scene, which was growing rapidly in popularity.[15] He started recording songs during the mid-1980s in his parents' garage.[13]

The original idea for Ruthless Records came when Wright asked Heller to go into business with him. Wright suggested a half-ownership company, but it was later decided that Wright would get eighty percent of the company's income and Heller would only get twenty percent. According to Heller, he told Wright, "Every dollar comes into Ruthless, I take twenty cents. That's industry standard for a manager of my caliber. I take twenty, you take eighty percent. I am responsible for my expenses and you're responsible for yours. You own the company. I work for you."[14] Along with Heller, Wright invested much of his money into Ruthless Records.[16] Heller claims that he invested the first $250,000 and would eventually put up to $1,000,000 into the company.[14]

Musical career

N.W.A and Eazy-Duz-It (1986–91)

Eazy-E co-headlined Public Enemy's 1988 "Bring the Noise" concert tour along with N.W.A

N.W.A's original lineup consisted of Arabian Prince, Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, and Ice Cube.[17][18] DJ Yella and MC Ren joined later.[19] The compilation album N.W.A. and the Posse was released on November 6, 1987, and would go on to be certified Gold in the United States.[20][21] The album featured material previously released as singles on the Macola Records label, which was responsible for distributing the releases by N.W.A and other artists like the Fila Fresh Crew, a West Coast rap group originally based in Dallas, Texas.[22][23]

Eazy-E's debut album, Eazy-Duz-It, was released on September 16, 1988, and featured twelve tracks. It was labeled as West Coast hip hop, Gangsta rap and Golden age hip hop. It has sold over 2.5 million copies in the United States and reached number forty-one on the Billboard 200.[13][24] The album was produced by Dr. Dre and DJ Yella and largely written by MC Ren, Ice Cube and The D.O.C..[25] Both Glen Boyd from the Seattle Post-Intelligencer and MTV's Jon Wiederhorn claimed that Eazy-Duz-It "paved the way" for N.W.A's most controversial album, Straight Outta Compton.[26][27] Wright's only solo in the album was a remix of the song "8 Ball," which originally appeared on N.W.A. and the Posse. The album featured Wright's writing and performing; he performed on seven songs and helped write four songs.[28]

After the release of Straight Outta Compton, Ice Cube left because of internal disputes and the group continued as a four-piece ensemble.[19] N.W.A released 100 Miles and Runnin' and Niggaz4Life in 1991. A diss war started between N.W.A and Ice Cube when "100 Miles and Runnin'" and "Real Niggaz" were released. Ice Cube responded with "No Vaseline" on Death Certificate.[29] Wright performed on seven of the eighteen songs on Niggaz4Life.[30] In March 1991 Wright accepted an invitation to a lunch benefiting the Republican Senatorial Inner Circle, hosted by then-U.S. President George H. W. Bush.[31] A spokesman for the rapper said that Eazy-E supported Bush because of his performance in the Persian Gulf War.[32]

End of N.W.A and feud with Dr. Dre (1991–94)

N.W.A began to split up after Jerry Heller became the band's manager. Dr. Dre recalls: "The split came when Jerry Heller got involved. He played the divide and conquer game. Instead of taking care of everybody, he picked one nigga to take care of and that was Eazy. And Eazy was like, 'I'm taken care of, so fuck it.'" Dre sent Suge Knight to look into Eazy's financial situation because he was beginning to grow suspicious of Eazy and Heller. Dre asked Eazy to release him from the Ruthless Records contract, but Eazy refused. The impasse led to what reportedly transpired between Knight and Eazy at the recording studio where Niggaz4life was recorded. After he refused to release Dre, Knight declared to Eazy that he had kidnapped Heller and was holding him prisoner in a van. The rumor did not convince Eazy to release Dre from his contract, and Knight threatened Eazy's family: Knight gave Eazy a piece of paper that contained Eazy's mother's address, telling him, "I know where your mama stays." Eazy finally signed Dre's release, officially ending N.W.A.[33]

The feud with Dr. Dre continued after a track on Dre's debut album The Chronic, "Fuck wit Dre Day (And Everybody's Celebratin')," contained lyrics that insulted Eazy-E. Eazy responded with the EP, It's On (Dr. Dre) 187um Killa, featuring the tracks "Real Muthaphuckkin G's" and "It's On." The album, which was released on October 25, 1993, contains pictures of Dre wearing "lacy outfits and makeup" when he was a member of the Electro-hop World Class Wreckin' Cru.[33]

Personal life

Wright had a son, Eric Darnell Wright, in 1984. He also had a daughter named Erin[34] who has legally changed her name to Ebie[35] (Ebie is currently crowd-funding a film called Ruthless Scandal: No More Lies to investigate her father's death).[36] Wright also has five other children by five separate women during his life.

Wright met Tomica Woods at a Los Angeles nightclub in 1991 and they married in 1995, twelve days before his death.[37] They had a son named Dominick and a daughter named Daijah (born six months after Wright's death).[38] After Wright's death, Ruthless Records was taken over by his wife.

Legal issues

After Dr. Dre left Ruthless Records, executives Mike Klein and Jerry Heller sought assistance from the Jewish Defense League (JDL). Klein, a former Ruthless Records director of business affairs, said this provided Ruthless Records with leverage to enter into negotiations with Death Row Records over Dr. Dre's departure.[39] While Knight had sought an outright release from Ruthless Records for Dr. Dre, the JDL and Ruthless Records management negotiated a release in which the record label would continue to receive money and publishing rights from future Dr. Dre projects with Death Row Records, founded by Dr. Dre with Suge Knight.[40] The FBI launched a money-laundering investigation under the assumption that the JDL was extorting money from Ruthless Records to fight their causes. This led to JDL spokesperson Irv Rubin issuing a press release stating "there was nothing but a close, tight relationship" between Eazy-E and the organization.[39] An FBI inquiry began in 1996 and was closed in 1999 with a finding that the allegations could not be substantiated.[41] The declassified FBI file was released to the public on the FBI's website "The Vault," part of the FOIA Library.[42]

Illness and death

Now, I'm in the biggest fight of my life and it ain't easy. But I want to say much love to those who have been down with me and thanks for all your support. Just remember: It's your real time and your real life.
--Statement from Eazy-E's camp on his behalf, March 16.[43]

On February 24, 1995, Wright was admitted to the Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles with a violent cough.[44] He was diagnosed with AIDS.[45] He announced his illness in a public statement on March 16, 1995. It is believed Wright contracted the infection from a sexual partner.[15][46][47] During the week of March 20, having already made amends with Ice Cube, he drafted a final message to his fans.[48]

On March 26, 1995, Eazy-E died from complications of AIDS, one month after his diagnosis. He was 30 years old (most reports at the time said he was 31 due to the falsification of his date of birth by one year).[13][49] He was buried on April 7, 1995 at Rose Hills Memorial Park in Whittier, California.[50] Over 3,000 people attended his funeral,[51] including Jerry Heller and DJ Yella.[52][53] He was buried in a gold casket, and instead of wearing a suit and tie, Eazy-E was dressed in a flannel shirt, a Compton hat and jeans.[54] On January 30, 1996, ten months after Eazy-E's death, his final album, Str8 off tha Streetz of Muthaphukkin Compton was released.

According to his son Lil Eazy-E, Eazy-E was worth an estimated USD$50 million at the time of his death.[55]

Musical influences and style

Allmusic cites Eazy-E's influences as Ice-T, Redd Foxx, Tupac Shakur, King Tee, Bootsy Collins, Run–D.M.C., Richard Pryor, Egyptian Lover, Schoolly D, Too $hort, Prince, the Sugarhill Gang and George Clinton.[56] In the documentary The Life and Timez of Eric Wright, Eazy-E mentions collaborating with many of his influences.[57]

When reviewing Str8 off tha Streetz of Muthaphukkin Compton, Stephen Thomas Erlewine noted "... Eazy-E sounds revitalized, but the music simply isn't imaginative. Instead of pushing forward and creating a distinctive style, it treads over familiar gangsta territory, complete with bottomless bass, whining synthesizers, and meaningless boasts."[58] When reviewing Eazy-Duz-It, Jason Birchmeier of Allmusic said, "In terms of production, Dr. Dre and Yella meld together P-Funk, Def Jam-style hip-hop and the leftover electro sounds of mid-'80s Los Angeles, creating a dense, funky, and thoroughly unique style of their own." Birchmeier described Eazy's style as "dense, unique and funky," and said that it sounded "absolutely revolutionary in 1988."[56]

Several members of N.W.A wrote lyrics for Eazy-Duz-It: Ice Cube, The D.O.C. and MC Ren.[59] The EP 5150: Home 4 tha Sick features a song written by Naughty By Nature. The track "Merry Muthaphuckkin' Xmas" features Menajahtwa, Buckwheat, and Atban Klann as guest vocalists, and "Neighborhood Sniper" features Kokane as a guest vocalist.[60] It's On (Dr. Dre) 187um Killa features several guest vocalists, including Gangsta Dresta, B.G. Knocc Out. Kokane, Cold 187um, Rhythum D, and Dirty Red.[61] Str8 off tha Streetz of Muthaphukkin Compton featured several guest vocalists, including B.G. Knocc Out, Gangsta Dresta, Sylk-E. Fyne, Dirty Red, Menajahtwa, Roger Troutman and ex-N.W.A members MC Ren and DJ Yella.[62]


Eazy-E has been called the godfather of gangsta rap[63][64][65][66] MTV's Reid Shaheem said that Eazy was a "rap-pioneer,"[66] and he is sometimes cited by critics as a legend.[67][68] Steve Huey of AllMusic said that he was "one of the most controversial figures in gangsta rap."[8] Since his 1995 death, many book and video biographies have been produced, including 2002's The Day Eazy-E Died and Dead and Gone.[69][70][71]

When Eazy was diagnosed with AIDS, many magazines like Jet,[72] Vibe,[73] Billboard,[74] The Crisis,[75] and Newsweek covered the story and released information on the topic.[76] All of his studio albums and EPs charted on the Billboard 200,[77][78][79] and many of his singles—"Eazy-Duz-It," "We Want Eazy," "Real Muthaphuckkin G's," and "Just tah Let U Know"—also charted in the U.S.[79][80]

In 2012 a Eazy-E documentary was released by Ruthless Propaganda, called Ruthless Memories. The documentary featured interviews from Jerry Heller, MC Ren and B.G. Knocc Out.[81]

In the 2015 film Straight Outta Compton, Eazy-E is played by Jason Mitchell and the film is dedicated in his memory.[82]


Studio albums

Eazy-Duz-It (1988) 
Str8 off tha Streetz of Muthaphukkin Compton (1996)

Extended Plays

5150: Home 4 tha Sick (1992) 
It's On (Dr. Dre) 187um Killa (1993) 
Impact of a Legend (2002) 

with N.W.A

N.W.A. and the Posse (1987) 
Straight Outta Compton (1988) 
Niggaz4Life (1991)


1."Eric L Wright, Born 09/07/1964 in California". California Birth Index.
2. Rani, Taj; Reagans, Dan (September 7, 2014). "Happy 50th Birthday, Eazy-E". BET.  ...he's making fifty this year. He was born on the September the seven, nineteen sixty-four [sic]
3. Westhoff, Ben (2017). Original Gangstas: The Untold Story of Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube, Tupac Shakur, and the Birth of West Coast Rap. New York: Hachette Books. p. 284. ISBN 978-0-3163-4485-2. Though Eazy's gravestone, and most obituaries, list his birth year as 1963, that is likely not accurate. The funeral program gave his birth year as 1964, as do most official court documents. That would make him only thirty at his death, rather than thirty-one as was widely reported.
4. djvlad (5 February 2016). Lil Eazy-E Tears Up as He Recalls Final Moments with Father Before His Death (YouTube). Event occurs at second 23.
5. "Top Five Most Wanted". Billboard: 38. August 9, 2008.
6. Miller, Michael (2008). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Music History. Alpha. p. 219. ISBN 1-59257-751-2.
7. "Celebrities We've Lost To AIDS | Lifestyle|" Archived February 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. November 19, 2007
8. Huey, Steve (2003). "Eazy-E Biography". Allmusic. Retrieved August 24, 2007.
9. Hochman, Steve (March 28, 1995). "Rap Star, Record Company Founder Eazy-E Dies of AIDS". Los Angeles Times.
10. "Hip-Hop News: Remembering Eric 'Eazy-E' Wright". Rap News Network. March 26, 2006
11. Harris, Carter (June–July 1995). "Eazy Living". Vibe. 3 (5): 62.
12. "Straight Outta Left Field". Dallas Observer. September 12, 2002.
13. Pareles, Jon (March 28, 1995). "Eazy-E, 31, Performer Who Put Gangster Rap on the Charts". The New York Times.
14. Heller, Jerry (2007). Ruthless: A Memoir. Gallery. pp. 65–77. ISBN 978-1-4169-1794-6.
15. Chang, Jeff (April 24, 2004). "The Last Days of Eazy E". Swindle. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved December 5, 2010.
16. Hunt, Dennis (October 22, 1989). "Dr. Dre Joins an Illustrious Pack In the last year, producer has hit with albums for N.W.A, Eazy-E, J. J. Fad and the D.O.C.". Los Angeles Times.
17. "Arabian Prince interview". Huffington Post. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
18. "Arabian Prince interview". VladTV. Retrieved September 16, 2015.
19. Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (2000). "N.W.A. – Biography". Allmusic.
20. Koroma, Salima (September 29, 2008) "Vh1 Airs Documentary On N.W.A.".
21. "Gold and Platinum – November 26, 2010". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
22. Bynoe, Yvonne (2005). Encyclopedia of Rap and Hip Hop Culture. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 294. ISBN 0-313-33058-1.
23. Brackett, Nathan (2004). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide: Completely Revised and Updated 4th Edition. Fireside Books. p. 248. ISBN 0-7432-0169-8.
24. "Eazy-Duz-It – Eazy-E". Billboard. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
25. Eazy-Duz-It (Media notes). Eazy-E. Ruthless, Priority. 1988.
26. Boyd, Glen (March 20, 2010). "Music Review: Eazy E - Eazy Duz It (Uncut Snoop Dogg Approved Edition/Remastered)". Seattle Post-Intelligencer
27. Wiederhorn, Jon. (July 31, 2002). "N.W.A Classics To Be Reissued With Bonus Tracks". MTV.
28. Straight Outta Compton (Media notes). N.W.A. Ruthless/Priority/EMI Records. 1988.
29. Lazerine, Cameron; Lazerine, Devin (2008). Rap-Up: The Ultimate Guide to Hip-Hop and R and B. Grand Central Publications. pp. 43–67. ISBN 978-0-446-17820-4.
30. Niggaz4Life (Media notes). N.W.A. Ruthless/Priority. 1991.
31. "Rap's Bad Boy to Get Lunch With the Prez". Los Angeles Times. March 18, 1991.
32. "Do the Right-Wing Thing". Entertainment Weekly (59). March 29, 1991.
33. Borgmeyer, Jon; Lang, Holly (2006). Dr. Dre: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 52–55. ISBN 0-313-33826-4.
34. "Eazy-E's daughter pays photo tribute, says father due more respect"
35. "A lot of people remember "Erin" from TV but my family has called me "E.B." (my initials) since birth."
36. Bandini (October 19, 2016). "Eazy E's daughter tries to crowd-fund to investigate father's death". ambrosiaforheads.
37. "Woods-Wright, Tomica"
38. "6 Months After Aids Kills Rapper, His Baby Is Born" .
39. Berry, Jahna (September 19, 2000). "The FBI Screws Up Again". Jewish Defense League. Archived from the original on January 6, 2009.
40. Moss, Corey (July 18, 2003). "50 Cent, Eminem, Dr. Dre Face Suge Knight At 'Da Club': VMA Lens Recap". MTV.
41. Rosenzweig, David (November 2, 2002). "JDL Leader's Attorneys Seek FBI Inquiry Files". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035.
42. "Eric Wright (Eazy-E, EZ E) Part 01 of 01". FBI.
43. Westhoff 2017, pp. 278–279.
44. Staff (4 September 1995). "A Gangster Wake-Up Call". Newsweek.
"Rapper Eazy E hospitalized with AIDS". UPI. Los Angeles. 17 March 1995.
46. Borgmeyer, Jon; Lang, Holly (2006). Dr. Dre: A Biography. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 99–100. ISBN 0-313-33826-4.
47. Talia, Pele (September 1995). "Vibe article". Vibe. 3 (7): 32.
48. "Eazy-E's Last Words".
49. Kapsambelis, Niki (March 27, 1995). "Gangsta rapper Eazy-E dies of AIDS". Park City Daily News. p. 39.
50. "Rose Hills Memorial Park, Whittier, CA". Notable Names Database.
51. Williams, Frank B. (8 April 1995). "Thousands Flock to Funeral for Eazy-E : Music: Overflow crowd is drawn to 'gangsta' rap star's service. Eulogy notes his contributions but warns of danger of AIDS, which killed the rapper". Los Angeles Times.
52. Mixon, Jon (7 October 2016). "Why didn't Dr. Dre, Ice Cube or MC Ren attend Eazy-E's funeral?". Quora.
53. Schwartz, Danny (8 September 2015). "DJ Yella Says He Was The Only Member Of N.W.A. To Attend Eazy-E's Funeral". HotNewHipHop.
54. "10 Most Interesting Facts About Eazy-E You May Not Know".
55. "Lil Eazy-E: My Father Was Worth $50 Million When He Passed Away". YouTube.
56. Huey, Steve. "Eazy-E". Allmusic.
57. The Life and Timez of Eric Wright (Color, DVD, NTSC)|format= requires |url= (help). April 2, 2002. Event occurs at 21:03. ASIN B000063UQQ.
58. Thomas, Stephen. "Str8 Off tha Streetz of Muthaphu**in Compton – Eazy-E". Allmusic. Retrieved November 27, 2010.
59. Eazy-Duz-It (CD). Eazy-E. Ruthless, Priority. 1988.
60. 5150: Home 4 tha Sick (CD). Eazy-E. Ruthless, Priority. 1992.
61. It's On (Dr. Dre) 187um Killa (CD). Eazy-E. Ruthless/Relativity/Epic. 1993.
62. Str8 off tha Streetz of Muthaphukkin Compton (CD). Eazy-E. Ruthless, Relativity, Epic. 1995.
63. Simmonds, Jeremy (2008). The Encyclopedia of Dead Rock Stars: Heroin, Handguns, and Ham Sandwiches. Chicago Review Press. p. 332. ISBN 1-55652-754-3.
64. "Widow of Rapper Eazy-E Gives Birth To Child". Jet. 88 (23): 40. October 16, 1995.
65. The Black Dot (2005). Hip Hop Decoded: From Its Ancient Origin to Its Modern Day Matrix. MOME Publishing. p. 100. ISBN 0-9772357-0-X.
66. Shaheem, Reid (March 26, 2010). "Lil Eazy-E Remembers His Dad, 15 Years Later". MTV.
67. Davis, Todd. "Lil Eazy-E: Son of a Legend". December 9, 2005.
68. "About the Official Hip Hop Hall Of Fame and Producer JT Thompson". November 16, 2010.
69. "The Day Eazy-E Died (A B-Boy Blues Novel #4) (9781555837600): James Earl Hardy: Books". ISBN 1555837603. Missing or empty |url= (help)
70. "Day Eazy E Died [PB,2002]: Jema Eerl Herdy: Books". September 9, 2009.
71. "Dead and Gone: Tupac, Eazy-E, Notorias BIG, Aaliyah, Big Pun, Big L: Video". September 9, 2009.
72. "Rap Star Eazy-E Battles AIDS; Listed in Critical Condition in LA Hospital". Jet: 13. April 3, 2010.
73. "The Invisible Woman". Vibe: 62. June–July 1995.
74. HN (August 9, 1997). "Ruthless Sounds". Billboard: 44.
75. Colin, Potter (July 1995). "AIDS in Black America: It's Not Just A Gay Thing". The Crisis: 34–35.
76. Smith, Rex. "Newsweek article". Newsweek. 137 (10–18): 609.
77. "Eazy-E". Allmusic.
78. "Eazy-E". Allmusic.
79. "Eazy-E". Allmusic.
80. "Eazy-E". Allmusic.
81. "Eazy-E Documentary To Release, Featuring Jerry Heller, MC Ren, B.G. Knocc Out". 

82.  "Jason Mitchell". IMDB. 2015.


Westhoff, Ben (2017). Original Gangstas: The Untold Story of Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube, Tupac Shakur, and the Birth of West Coast Rap. New York: Hachette Books. ISBN 978-0-3163-4485-2.

"Black Sheep" Actress & Entrepreneur Denise Dubarry 1956-2019 Memorial Video

Denise DuBarry (March 6, 1956 – March 23, 2019) was an American actress, businesswoman, film producer, and philanthropist. She co-founded Thane International, Inc., a direct response industry company along with her husband, Bill Hay, in 1990. She served as its Chief Creative Officer for 15 years, from 1990–2005. As an actress, she is best known for her role as nurse Lieutenant Samantha Green, on the television series Black Sheep Squadron, and as Johanna Franklin in the film Being There.

She was a pioneer in the infomercial industry as producer of Play the Piano Overnight in 1988, which won the Billboard Music Award for Best Music Instruction Video that year and then Play the Guitar Overnight which won the 1991 Billboard Music Award for Best Music Instruction.

Early life

DuBarry was born in Killeen, Texas, at Fort Hood Army Base, to Adrian Pierre DuBarry and his wife, Betty Louise (née King). Her parents moved back to Louisiana where they were from so that her father could finish his master's degree at LSU in Baton Rouge. The family later moved to Honduras, Mexico, Guatemala and Costa Rica, where DuBarry grew up from ages 2 to 10, and learned to speak fluent Spanish. The family moved throughout California, eventually settling in Granada Hills, California, where Denise attended middle school and high school. A child of divorce and the eldest of five children, at 14 she watched after her siblings while her mother worked.


DuBarry practiced yoga starting in 1979. She founded and owned Malibu Yoga [1] in 1986 which catered to a celebrity clientele. She gave the studio to a friend in 1990 when she relocated. She was a partner in Palm Desert, California's Bikram Yoga University Village Studio.[2]


At age 18, she went to work for her father in his paper export business, DuBarry International, and took acting lessons at night with Milton Katselas and Charles E. Conrad. She landed commercials for Michelob Beer, Chevrolet Camaro and worked as an extra in the kid's shows, Magic Mongo, Wonder Woman and she made an appearance on The Gong Show as beauty contestant, "Ms. Hold the Mayo."

She competed in several real beauty contests including Ms. Malibu where she won "Most Photogenic." She was hired to co-star in a CBS Movie of the Week, Deadman's Curve. She landed a regular role in the second season of the NBC World War II television series, Black Sheep Squadron, and had bit-parts in popular television shows, including Charlie's Angels. Trapper John, M.D. and Match Game '78. Director Hal Ashby cast her in a featured role in the 1979 film Being There.[3]


Having previously acted together in the 1980 television movie Top of the Hill, DuBarry and husband Gary Lockwood formed a production company, Xebec Productions, in 1982, and she began writing and fundraising for film development and production, while she continued to act. In 1985, she appeared in the cult film Monster in the Closet.


She met her future husband Bill Hay through mutual friend Dick Robertson, then president of Warner Bros. Television Distribution. The couple formed[4] and produced and distributed,[5][6] Beat the Recession and a slew of other infomercials.


In 2005, DuBarry founded Kaswit, Inc., a direct response marketing company. Two of Kaswit's top direct response projects are the infomercials: "Pilates Power Gym," and "Secrets to Training the Perfect Dog" with Don Sullivan, "The Dog Father." Through her production company, Blue Moxie Entertainment (founded 2006), she produced a feature film, Shoot the Hero, first shown at the 2010 Palm Springs International Film Festival.


1. January 19, 1989, pp. 12–13. "Uptight People Try for a Stretch"- Carrie McNamara(McNamara 1989)
2. Folmer, James. "Actress takes on a new role: DuBarry Hay opens Bikram yoga studio", The Desert Sun, February 21, 2011, pg. B5.5
3. Being There (film) profile,; accessed May 5, 2018.
 Thane International
4. "Play the Guitar Overnight". Retrieved May 5, 2018.
5. Playboy's Secrets to Making Love to the Same Person Forever, 6.; accessed May 5, 2018.

-- Wikipedia

Thursday, March 21, 2019

Guitar Inventor Leo Fender 1991 Fairhaven Cemetery

Clarence Leonidas "Leo" Fender (August 10, 1909 – March 21, 1991) was an American inventor who founded Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company, or "Fender" for short. In January 1965, he sold the company to CBS and later founded two other musical instrument companies, Music Man and G and L Musical Instruments.

The guitars, bass guitars, and amplifiers he designed from the 1940s on are still widely used: the Fender Telecaster (1950) was the first mass-produced solid-body electric guitar; the Fender Stratocaster (1954) is among the world's most iconic electric guitars; the Fender Precision Bass (1951) set the standard for electric bass guitars, and the Fender Bassman amplifier, popular enough in its own right, became the basis for later amplifiers (notably by Marshall and Mesa Boogie) that dominated rock and roll music. Leo Fender was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992—a unique achievement given that he never learned to play the instruments that he made a career of building.[1]


Early life

Clarence Leonidas Fender ("Leo") was born on August 10, 1909, to Clarence Monte Fender and Harriet Elvira Wood, owners of a successful orange grove located between Anaheim and Fullerton, California.

From an early age, Fender showed an interest in tinkering with electronics. When he was 13 years old, his uncle, who ran an automotive-electric shop, sent him a box filled with discarded car radio parts, and a battery. The following year, Leo visited his uncle's shop in Santa Maria, California, and was fascinated by a radio his uncle had built from spare parts and placed on display in the front of the shop. Leo later claimed that the loud music coming from the speaker of that radio made a lasting impression on him. Soon thereafter, Leo began repairing radios in a small shop in his parents' home.

In the spring of 1928, Fender graduated from Fullerton Union High School, and entered Fullerton Junior College that fall, as an accounting major. While he was studying to be an accountant, he continued to teach himself electronics, and tinker with radios and other electrical items but never took any kind of electronics course.

After college, Fender took a job as a delivery man for Consolidated Ice and Cold Storage Company in Anaheim, where he was later made the bookkeeper. It was around this time that a local band leader approached Leo, asking him if he could build a public address system for use by the band at dances in Hollywood. Fender was contracted to build six of these PA systems.

In 1933, Fender met Esther Klosky, and they were married in 1934. About that time, he took a job as an accountant for the California Highway Department in San Luis Obispo. In a depression government change, his job was eliminated, and he then took a job in the accounting department of a tire company. After working there for six months, Leo lost his job along with the other accountants in the company.

Fender Radio Service

In 1938, with a borrowed $600, Leo and Esther returned to Fullerton, and Leo started his own radio repair shop, "Fender Radio Service." Soon, musicians and band leaders began coming to him for public address systems, which he built, rented, and sold. They also visited his store for amplification for the amplified acoustic guitars that were beginning to show up on the southern California music scene – in big band and jazz music, and for the electric "Hawaiian" or "lap steel" guitars becoming popular in country music.

Early guitar builds

During World War II, Leo met Clayton Orr "Doc" Kauffman, an inventor and lap steel player who had worked for Rickenbacker, which had been building and selling lap steel guitars for a decade. While with Rickenbacker, Kauffman had invented the "Vibrola" tailpiece, a precursor to the later vibrato tailpiece. Fender convinced him that they should team up, and they started the "K  and F Manufacturing Corporation" to design and build amplified Hawaiian guitars and amplifiers. In 1944, Leo and Doc patented a lap steel guitar with an electric pickup already patented by Fender. In 1945, they began selling the guitar in a kit with an amplifier designed by Fender.

Development of the electric guitar: Esquire/Broadcaster/Telecaster

As the Big Bands fell out of vogue towards the end of World War II, small combos playing boogie-woogie, rhythm and blues, western swing, and honky-tonk formed throughout the United States. Many of these outfits embraced the electric guitar because it could give a few players the power of an entire horn section. Pickup-equipped archtops were the guitars of choice in the dance bands of the late 1940s, but the increasing popularity of roadhouses and dance halls created a growing need for louder, cheaper, and more durable instruments. Players also needed 'faster' necks and better intonation to play what the country players called "take-off lead guitar." In the late 1940s, solidbody electric guitars began to rise in popularity, yet they were still considered novelty items, with the Rickenbacker Spanish Electro guitar being the most commercially available solidbody, and Les Paul's one-off home-made "Log" and the Bigsby Travis guitar made by Paul Bigsby for Merle Travis being the most visible early examples.

Fender recognized the potential for an electric guitar that was easy to hold, tune, and play, and would not feed back at dance hall volumes as the typical archtop would. In 1949, he finished the prototype of a thin solid-body electric; it was first released in 1950 as the Fender Esquire (with a solid body and one pickup), and renamed first Broadcaster and then Telecaster (with two pickups) the year after.[2] The Telecaster, originally equipped with two single-coil pickups and widely used among country and western players, became one of the most popular electric guitars in history.


Instead of updating the Telecaster, Fender decided, based on customer feedback, to leave the Telecaster as it was and design a new, upscale solid-body guitar to sell alongside the basic Telecaster. Western swing guitarist Bill Carson was one of the chief critics of the Telecaster, stating that the new design should have individually adjustable bridge saddles, four or five pickups, a vibrato unit that could be used in either direction and return to proper tuning, and a contoured body for enhanced comfort over the slab-body Telecaster's harsh edges. Fender, assisted by draftsman Freddie Tavares, began designing the Stratocaster in late 1953. It included a rounder, less "club-like" neck (at least for the first year of issue) and a double cutaway for easier reach to the upper registers.[3]

Another novelty to the Stratocaster design included the use of three pickups wired to offer three different voicings, two of which could be further tailored by the player by adjusting the two tone controls.

The standard 5 way switch we know today was implemented much later on in the Stratocaster's development

Bass guitars: Precision, Jazz

During this time, Fender also tackled the problems experienced by players of the acoustic double bass, who could no longer compete for volume with the other musicians. Besides, double basses were also large, bulky, and difficult to transport. With the Precision Bass (or "P-Bass"), released in 1951, Leo Fender addressed both issues: the Telecaster-based Precision Bass was small and portable, and its solid-body construction and four-magnet, single coil pickup let it play at higher volumes without feedback. Along with the Precision Bass (so named because its fretted neck allowed bassists to play with 'precision'), Fender introduced a bass amplifier, the Fender Bassman, a 25-watt amplifier with one 15-inch speaker (later updated to 45 watts and four 10-inch speakers).

1954 saw an update of the Precision Bass to coincide with the introduction of the Stratocaster. Incorporating some of the body contours of the Stratocaster, the update also included a two-section nickel-plated bridge and a white single-layer pickguard.

In June 1957, Fender announced a redesign of the Precision Bass. The remake included a larger headstock, a new pickguard design, a bridge with four steel saddles that could be individually adjusted and a new split single-coil pickup. This proved to be the final version of the instrument, which has changed little since then. In 1960, rosewood fingerboards, wider color selections and a three-ply pickguard became available for the P-Bass.

1960 saw the release of the Jazz Bass, a sleeker, updated bass with a slimmer neck, and offset waist body and two single coil pickups (as opposed to the Precision Bass and its split-humbucking pickup that had been introduced in 1957). Like its predecessor, the Jazz Bass (or simply "J-Bass") was an instant hit and has remained popular to this day, and early models are highly sought after by collectors.

1970 – Music Man and G and L

In the 1950s, Leo Fender contracted a streptococcal sinus infection that impaired his health to the point where he decided to wind up his business affairs, selling the Fender company to CBS in 1965. As part of this deal, Leo Fender signed a non-compete clause and remained a consultant with Fender for a while. Shortly after selling the company, he changed doctors and was cured of his illness. In 1971 Forrest White and Tom Walker formed the Tri-Sonix company (often incorrectly referred to as "Tri-Sonic"), based in Santa Ana, California. Walker and White went to Leo to help finance their company. It evolved into 'Music Man,' a name Leo Fender preferred over their name, Tri-Sonix. After considerable financing, in 1975, Leo Fender became its president.[4]

The StingRay bass was an innovative early instrument. Though the body design borrowed heavily from the Precision Bass, the StingRay is largely considered the first production bass with active electronics. The StingRay's two-band active equalizer, high output humbucking pickup, and smooth satin finished neck became a favorite of many influential bassists, including Louis Johnson, John Deacon, and Flea. Later, a three-band active equalizer was introduced on the StingRay.[5] Music Man was active making amplifiers as well, but the HD-130 Reverb, designed to compete with the Twin Reverb, came at a time when the clean sounds of the Twin were going out of fashion.[4]

In 1979, Leo Fender and old friends George Fullerton and Dale Hyatt started a new company called G and L (George and Leo)[6] Musical Products. G and L guitar designs tended to lean heavily upon the looks of Fender's original guitars such as the Stratocaster and Telecaster, but incorporated innovations such as enhanced tremolo systems and electronics.

In 1979, Fender's wife Esther died of cancer. He remarried in 1980; Phyllis Fender is an Honorary Chairman of G and L. Despite suffering several minor strokes, Fender continued to produce guitars and basses. On March 21, 1991, he died, having long suffered from Parkinson's disease. He was buried at Fairhaven Memorial Park in Santa Ana, California. His accomplishments for "contributions of outstanding technical significance to the recording field" were acknowledged with a Technical Grammy Award in 2009.[7]


1. "Leo Fender (American inventor and manufacturer)". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
2. (Smith, Richard (May 1998). History of the Fender Telecaster. Guitar Player Magazine.) 
3. Burrows, T. et al. "The Complete Book of the Guitar" p. 71-72 Carlton Books Limited, 1998 ISBN 1-85868-529-X 
4. Hunter, Dave (January 2012). "The Music Man HD-130 Reverb". Vintage Guitar. pp. 64–66. 
5. Music Man StingRay product page 
6. "G and L Guitars". Retrieved 2012-11-08. 
7. "Technical GRAMMY award". Retrieved January 30, 2012.