Tuesday, December 29, 2020

"Pal Joey" Actress & Singer Vivienne Segal 1992 Westwood Village Cemetery

Vivienne Sonia Segal (April 19, 1897 – December 29, 1992) was an American actress and singer.[1]

Early years

Segal was born on April 19, 1897, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. She was the elder daughter of Jewish parents, Bernard Segal (a physician) and Paula (née Hahn) Segal, who encouraged Vivienne and her sister, Louise, to seek careers in show business.[2] Her obituary in The Guardian reported that her father "underwrote a local opera company in order to give her the chance to sing."[3]


Segal's career began when she was 15 years old and began performing with the Philadelphia Operatic Society.[4] Her Broadway debut came in The Blue Paradise (1915),[5] a production that was underwritten by her father.[3] In 1924 and 1925, she was a member of the Ziegfeld Follies.[6] She was also a performer on the CBS Radio program Accordiana in 1934.[7]

Segal may be best remembered for creating the role of Vera Simpson in Richard Rodgers and Lorenz Hart's Pal Joey and introducing the song "Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered." Pal Joey opened at the Ethel Barrymore Theatre December 25, 1940, with a cast that included Gene Kelly and June Havoc.[8] She also starred as Morgan LeFay in the Rodgers and Hart revival of A Connecticut Yankee in 1942.[9] One of Lorenz Hart's last songs, "To Keep My Love Alive," was written specifically for her in this show.[3]

Since the 1940 Pal Joey production went unrecorded, a studio cast was assembled in 1950 to record the musical. In 2003, this recording was reissued on CD by Columbia Broadway Masterworks in a release featuring the full show's numbers plus two bonus tracks: Harold Lang singing "I Could Write a Book" (from the CBS TV show Shower of Stars) and Segal singing "Bewitched, Bothered and Bewildered" on the CBS Radio show Stage Struck, interviewed by Mike Wallace recalling Hart's promise to write her a show.[10] In 1952, she played in Pal Joey again, when it was revived on Broadway.[2]

Vivienne Segal retired from acting in 1966 following a guest appearance on Perry Mason as Pauline Thorsen in "The Case of the Tsarina's Tiara."


Segal and actor Robert Ames eloped in 1923; they divorced in 1926.[2] In 1950, she married television executive Hubbell Robinson, Jr.[1] Both unions were childless.[11]


Segal died in Beverly Hills, California of heart failure on December 29, 1992, aged 95.[1] Her ashes were scattered in the Rose Garden at Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery in Los Angeles.


In 1952, Segal received a Donaldson Award in the Best Performance-Actress (Musical Division) category for her performance in the revival of Pal Joey.[12]

Musical theater

1915 The Blue Paradise
1917 My Lady's Glove
1917 Miss 1917
1918 Oh, Lady! Lady!!
1919 The Little Whopper
1921 A Dangerous Maid (as a replacement)
1922 The Yankee Princess
1923 Adrienne
1924 Ziegfeld Follies
1925 Ziegfeld Follies
1925 Florida Girl
1926 Castles in the Air
1926 The Desert Song
1928 The Three Musketeers

1931 The Chocolate Soldier

1938 I Married an Angel

1940 Pal Joey

1943 A Connecticut Yankee Broadway revival

1947 Music in My Heart
1950 Great to Be Alive!
1952 Pal Joey Broadway revival


Year Title Role Notes

1929 Will You Remember? Short.

1930 Song of the West Virginia Filmed in two-color Technicolor. Lost film.

1930 Bride of the Regiment Countess Anna-Marie Filmed in two-color Technicolor. Lost film.

1930 Golden Dawn Dawn Filmed in two-color Technicolor. Survives in black and white.

1930 Viennese Nights Elsa Hofner Filmed in two-color Technicolor. Survives in color.

1933 Fifi Fifi Short.
1934 The Cat and the Fiddle Odette Filmed in black and white with Technicolor finale.
1934 Soup for Nuts Prima Donna Short.


1. William Grimes (December 30, 1992). "Vivienne Segal, 95, a Stage Star In Roles Sweet to Cynical, Is Dead". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-12-07. Vivienne Segal, a musical-comedy star who appeared on Broadway in 'The Desert Song,' 'No, No, Nanette,' and 'Pal Joey,' died yesterday in Los Angeles. She was 95 years old and lived in Beverly Hills. She died of heart failure, said Robert Sidney, a friend. ...
2. Stark, Bonnie Rothbart. "Vivienne Segal". Encyclopedia. Jewish Women's Archive. 
3. Harris, Dale (2 January 1993). "Unbothered and bewitching". The Guardian. England, London. p. 24. 
4. "Star Quits 'Goody' Types". The Los Angeles Times. California, Los Angeles. 2 January 1940. p. 20 - Part I. 
5. "Vivienne Segal". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Archived from the original on 19 December 2017. 
6. "Vivienne Segal". Masterworks Broadway. Archived from the original on 19 December 2017. 
7. Sies, Luther F. (2014). Encyclopedia of American Radio, 1920-1960, 2nd Edition, Volume 1. McFarland & Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0-7864-5149-4. P. 11.
8. "Playbill". Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. 
9. Suskin, Steven (1990). Opening Night on Broadway: A Critical Quotebook of the Golden Era of the Musical Theatre. New York: Schrimmer Books, pp. 154–157. ISBN 0-02-872625-1.
10. http://www.lorenzhart.org/disco_joey1950.htm
11. Grimes, William (30 December 1992). "Vivienne Segal, 95, a Stage Star In Roles Sweet to Cynical, Is Dead" – via NYTimes.com.
12 "The Winners of the 9th Annual Donaldson Awards 1951-1" (PDF). Billboard. June 21, 1952. p. 47. 


Sies, Luther F. Encyclopedia of American Radio: 1920-1960. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2000. ISBN 0-7864-0452-3

Thursday, December 17, 2020

"Laverne & Shirley" Actress & "Big" Director Penny Marshall 2018 Forest Lawn Hollywood Hills Cemetery

Carole Penny Marshall[1] (October 15, 1943 – December 17, 2018)[1] was an American actress, director, and producer. She came to notice in the 1970s for her role as Laverne DeFazio on the television sitcom Laverne & Shirley (1976–1983), receiving three nominations for the Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Television Series Musical or Comedy for her portrayal.

Marshall made her directorial debut with Jumpin' Jack Flash (1986) before directing Big (1988), which became the first film directed by a woman to gross more than $100 million at the U.S. box office. Her subsequent directing credits included Awakenings (1990), which was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture, A League of Their Own (1992), Renaissance Man (1994), The Preacher's Wife (1996) and Riding in Cars with Boys (2001). She also produced Cinderella Man (2005) and Bewitched (2005), and directed episodes of the TV series According to Jim and United States of Tara.

Early life

Carole Penny Marshall was born in the Bronx, New York City, New York, on October 15, 1943, to Marjorie Irene (née Ward; 1908–1983), a tap dance teacher who ran the Marjorie Marshall Dance School, and Anthony "Tony" Masciarelli (1906–1999), later Anthony Wallace Marshall, a director of industrial films and later a producer.[2] She was the sister of actor/director/TV producer Garry Marshall and Ronny Hallin, a television producer. Her birth name, Carole, was selected because her mother's favorite actress was Carole Lombard. Her middle name was selected because her older sister Ronny, wanting a horse in the Bronx, was saving her pennies; her mother chose the middle name in an attempt to console her.[3]


Her father was of Italian descent, his family having come from Abruzzo,[4] and her mother was of German, English, and Scottish descent;[5][6][7] Marshall's father changed his last name from Masciarelli to Marshall before she was born.[8][9] Religion played no role in the Marshall children's lives. Garry was christened Episcopalian, Ronny was Lutheran, and Penny was confirmed in a Congregational Church, because "[Mother] sent us anyplace that had a hall where she could put on a recital. If she hadn't needed performance space, we wouldn't have bothered."[10]

She grew up at 3235 Grand Concourse, the Bronx, in a building which was also the childhood home of Neil Simon, Paddy Chayefsky, Calvin Klein, and Ralph Lauren.[11] She began her career as a tap dancer at age three, and later taught tap at her mother's dance school. She graduated from Walton High School, a public girls' high school in New York and then went to University of New Mexico for 2​1⁄2 years where she studied math and psychology. While at UNM, Marshall became pregnant with daughter Tracy Reiner (née Tracy Henry), and soon after married the father, Michael Henry, in 1963. The couple divorced three years later in 1966.[12] During this period, Marshall worked various jobs to support herself, including working as a choreographer for the Albuquerque Civic Light Opera Association.[13] In 1967,[14] she moved to Los Angeles to join her older brother Garry, a writer whose credits at the time included TV's The Dick Van Dyke Show (1961–1966).


Laverne & Shirley

Marshall first appeared on a television commercial for Head and Shoulders beautifying shampoo. She was hired to play a girl with stringy, unattractive hair, and Farrah Fawcett was hired to play a girl with thick, bouncy hair. As the crew was lighting the set, Marshall's stand-in wore a placard that read "Homely Girl" and Fawcett's stand-in wore a placard that said "Pretty Girl." Fawcett, sensing Marshall's insecurity about her looks, crossed out "Homely" on the Marshall stand-in placard and wrote "Plain."[15] Marshall and Billie Hayes were the only actresses to audition for the role of Witchiepoo for H.R. Pufnstuf, produced by Sid and Marty Krofft. Marshall thought that she was not right for the part, and Hayes got the role.[16]

In 1968 Marshall accepted an offer from her brother to appear in a movie he had written and was producing, called How Sweet It Is (1968). She landed another small role in the film The Savage Seven (1968), as well as a guest appearance on the hit television series That Girl, starring Marlo Thomas.[17] Marshall was considered for the role of Gloria Bunker Stivic on All in the Family, but lost the part to Sally Struthers.[18]

In 1970, Garry Marshall became the executive producer of the television series The Odd Couple. The following year, Marshall was added to the permanent cast to play a secretary, Myrna, and held the role for four years. In Marshall's final appearance on The Odd Couple, her character married her boyfriend, Sheldn ("they left the "o" off the birth certificate," she explains), played by Rob Reiner, her real-life husband.[17] The episode included Marshall's real-life siblings, Garry and Ronny, as Myrna's brother and sister.[19]

While she was on The Odd Couple, Marshall played small roles in TV movies such as Evil Roy Slade (1972), starring John Astin and Mickey Rooney (and produced by brother Garry); The Crooked Hearts (1972) starring Douglas Fairbanks Jr., in which she played a waitress; The Couple Takes a Wife, starring Bill Bixby; and Wacky Zoo of Morgan City (1972). In 1974, James L. Brooks and Allan Burns cast Marshall as Janice Dreyfuss, sister-in-law to Paul Dreyfuss (played by actor Paul Sand) in the series Paul Sand in Friends and Lovers. It aired on CBS-TV Saturday nights beginning September 14, 1974. Despite good reviews and decent ratings, it was canceled mid-season. Brooks and Burns, along with studio head Grant Tinker, were so impressed with Marshall's comedic talent that the following season, they hired Marshall and actress Mary Kay Place to play Mary Richards' new neighbors (Paula and Sally Jo) on The Mary Tyler Moore Show.[20]

Garry Marshall, creator and then part-time writer for Happy Days, cast Marshall and Cindy Williams to guest appear on an episode of the show. The installment, titled "A Date with Fonzie,"[21] aired on November 11, 1975 and introduced the characters Laverne DeFazio and Shirley Feeney (played by Marshall and Williams, respectively). In that episode, Laverne and Shirley were a pair of wisecracking brewery workers who were dates for Fonzie (Henry Winkler) and Richie (Ron Howard). The pair were such a hit with the studio audience that Garry Marshall decided to co-create and star them in a successful spinoff, Laverne & Shirley (1976–1983).[22] The characters of Laverne and Shirley appeared in five more episodes of Happy Days. In 1982 at the beginning of Laverne & Shirley's eighth season, Williams left the show due to her pregnancy. Marshall continued with the show, but it was canceled after the season's final episode aired in May 1983.[23]

In 1983, while still filming Laverne & Shirley, Marshall guest starred on Taxi in a cameo appearance as herself. In the Taxi episode "Louie Moves Uptown,"[24] Marshall is turned down for residency in a new high-rise condominium in Manhattan. The Laverne & Shirley episode "Lost in Spacesuits"[25] is referred to in the scene.

Marshall lent her voice to Ms. Botz, a.k.a. Ms. Botzcowski, the "babysitter bandit," on the first produced episode of The Simpsons, making her the first official guest star to appear on the show, and played a cameo role as herself on the HBO series Entourage. She also made a cameo appearance alongside her brother Garry in the Disney Halloween-themed movie Hocus Pocus as husband and wife. She was reunited with her Laverne & Shirley co-star, Cindy Williams, on a November 2013 episode of Sam & Cat.[26][27][28]

Directing career

At the encouragement of her brother, Marshall became interested in directing.[29] While starring on Laverne and Shirley, she made her debut as a director and directed four episodes of that show[30] as well as other TV assignments. In 1979, she directed several episodes of the short-lived sitcom Working Stiffs, starring Michael Keaton and James Belushi. 

Marshall soon moved on to theatrical films, her first film being Jumpin' Jack Flash (1986) starring Whoopi Goldberg. She got this gig when the original director dropped out.[29] She also gave her daughter Tracy and her brother Garry roles in the film.[31]

Marshall directed several successful feature films from the mid-1980s onwards, including Big (1988) starring Tom Hanks (the first film directed by a woman to gross over US$100 million), Awakenings (1990) starring Robin Williams and Robert De Niro, A League of Their Own (1992) with Geena Davis, Tom Hanks, Madonna and Rosie O'Donnell, and The Preacher's Wife (1996) starring Denzel Washington and Whitney Houston. In 1991, she was awarded the Women in Film Crystal Award.[32]

In 2010–2011, Marshall directed two episodes of the Showtime series United States of Tara. In 2013, Women in Film and Video presented her with the Women of Vision Award.[33] In 2014, Marshall announced she was developing a biopic on Effa Manley entitled Effa.[34]

Personal life

While at college, Marshall met Michael Henry, a football player, and left to marry him in 1963, aged 20;[35] they had one daughter named Tracy in 1964 (now Tracy Reiner). The marriage lasted three years.[14]

On April 10, 1971,[36] Marshall married actor/director Rob Reiner, who later adopted Tracy. Her marriage to Reiner ended in 1981; the couple had five grandchildren together.[37]

Marshall had a brief relationship with singer Art Garfunkel in the mid-1980s, and he credits her with helping him through his depression.[38]

Marshall had an abortion after getting pregnant in 1983. In 2010, it was reported that Marshall had been diagnosed with lung cancer that had metastasized to her brain, but two years later she was 'fine now.'[39] Following her recovery she published a memoir, My Mother Was Nuts.[17]


Marshall died in Los Angeles on December 17, 2018, at the age of 75. According to her death certificate, the causes were cardiopulmonary failure, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus type 1.[40][41][42]

Following Marshall's death, her former husband Rob Reiner,[43] broadcaster Dan Rather,[44] former co-stars Ron Howard and Cindy Williams,[45][46] and Major League Baseball[47] all paid tribute to her on Twitter.

Marshall is interred at Forest Lawn Memorial Park in Hollywood Hills. The 'L' from her Laverne character is emblazoned at the bottom of her headstone.



As actress

Year Film Role Notes

1968 The Savage Seven Tina [48]

1968 How Sweet It Is! Tour Girl [48]

1970 The Grasshopper Plaster Caster [48]

1970 Where's Poppa? Courtroom Spectator Uncredited

1975 How Come Nobody's on Our Side? Theresa aka Capers[49]

1979 1941 Miss Fitzroy Uncredited[50]

1985 Movers & Shakers Reva Cameo[51]

1988 She's Having a Baby Herself Uncredited

1991 The Hard Way Angie [52]

1993 Hocus Pocus The Master's Wife Uncredited[53]

1995 Get Shorty Herself Cameo[54]

1998 The Emperor's New Clothes: An All-Star Illustrated Retelling of the Classic Fairy Tale The Imperial Lady-in-Waiting #2 Voice[55]

1999 Special Delivery

2000 High Fidelity Funeral Attendee Uncredited

2004 Stateside Lt. Chevetone Uncredited[50]

2005 Looking for Comedy in the Muslim World Herself Cameo[56]

2007 Everybody Wants to Be Italian Teresa the Florist [57]

2007 Alice Upside Down Mrs. Plotkin Direct-to-video film[58]

2007 Blonde Ambition Bolo Executive [54]

2011 New Year's Eve Herself (segment "Ahern Party")

2014 Going to America Herself – Famous Director

2015 Staten Island Summer Dolores

2015 Scooby-Doo! and Kiss: Rock and Roll Mystery The Elder Voice, Direct-to-video film[59]

2016 Mother's Day Narrator Voice[60]

As director

Year Title Notes

1986 Jumpin' Jack Flash [48]

1988 Big [48]

1990 Awakenings Also executive producer[48]

1992 A League of Their Own Also executive producer[48]

1994 Renaissance Man Also executive producer[48]

1996 The Preacher's Wife [48]

2001 Riding in Cars with Boys [48]

As producer

Year Title Notes

1993 Calendar Girl Executive producer[61]

1996 Getting Away with Murder Producer[62]

1998 With Friends Like These... Producer[63]

2003 Risk Producer

2005 Cinderella Man Producer[64]

                Bewitched Producer[64]


As actress

Year Title Role Notes

1968–1969 That Girl Assistant Librarian / Joan Episodes: "Secret Ballot," "Fix My Screen & Bug Out"[48]

1969 My Friend Tony Janet Episode: "Computer Murder"

1969 Then Came Bronson Claire Episode: "The Runner"[65]

1970 Love, American Style Mary Agnes Episode: "Love and the Pick-Up" segment[48]

1970 Barefoot in the Park Episode: "In Sickness and in Health"

1970 The Wonderful World of Disney Mayor's Secretary Episodes: "The Wacky Zoo of Morgan City" (Parts 1 & 2)

1971 The Feminist and the Fuzz Liberation Lady Television film[66]

1971 Getting Together Mona Episode: "Those Oldies But Goodies Remind Me of You"[67]

1972–1974 The Odd Couple Myrna Turner 27 episodes[50]

1972 Evil Roy Slade Bank Teller Television film[68]

1972 The Super Janice Episode: "The Matchmaker"[69]

1972 The Bob Newhart Show Stewardess Episode: "Fly the Unfriendly Skies"[48]

1972 The Crooked Hearts Waitress Television film[69]

1972 The Couple Takes a Wife Paula Television film[69]

1973 Banacek Receptionist Episode: "The Greatest Collection of Them All"

1974–1975 Paul Sand in Friends and Lovers Janice Dreyfuss 14 episodes[48]

1974–1976 The Mary Tyler Moore Show Toni / Paula Kovacs Episodes: "I Was a Single for WJM," "Murray in Love," "Menage-a-Lou"[48]

1975 Let's Switch! Alice Wright Television film[70]

1975 Wives Connie Television film

1975 Chico and the Man Anita Cappuccino Episode: "Chico and the Van"[69]

1975 Saturday Night Live Herself Episode: "Rob Reiner"[50]

1975–1979 Happy Days Laverne DeFazio 5 episodes[48]

1976 Good Heavens Episode: "Take Me Out to the Ball Game"[71]

1976–1983 Laverne & Shirley Laverne DeFazio 178 episodes[48]

1977 Saturday Night Live Herself Episode: "Live from Mardi Gras"[50]

1977 Blansky's Beauties Laverne DeFazio Episode: "Nancy Remembers Laverne"[72]

1978 Mork & Mindy Laverne DeFazio Episode: "Pilot"[50]

1978 More Than Friends Matty Perlman Television film[69]

1979 Carol Burnett & Company Herself Episode #1.3[73]

1981–1982 Laverne & Shirley in the Army Laverne DeFazio Voice, 13 episodes[72]

1982 Mork & Mindy/Laverne & Shirley/Fonz Hour Laverne DeFazio Voice, 8 episodes (Laverne & Shirley with the Fonz segment)[50]

1983 Taxi Herself Episode: "Louie Moves Uptown"[50]

1984 The New Show Various Characters Episode #1.4[74]

1984 Love Thy Neighbor Linda Wilson Television film[75]

1985 Challenge of a Lifetime Nora Schoonover Television film[76]

1990 The Simpsons Ms. Botz Voice, Episode: "Some Enchanted Evening"[50]

1993 The Odd Couple: Together Again Myrna Television film[65]

1996 Saturday Night Live Various Characters Episode: "Rosie O'Donnell/Whitney Houston"[50]

1998 Tracey Takes On... Herself Episode: "Hollywood"

1998 Nash Bridges Iris Heller Episode: "Skin Deep"

1999 Jackie's Back! Herself Cameo

2004 Frasier Celeste Voice, Episode: "Frasier-Liste"

2006 Campus Ladies Episode: "Webcam"[50]

2006 Bones Herself Episode: "The Woman at the Airport"[50]

2008 The Game Doris Fox Episode: "A Delectable Basket of Treats"[50]

2012 The Life & Times of Tim PR Executive Voice, Episode: "The Smug Chiropractor/Corporate Disaster"

2012 Portlandia Barbara Episode: "Feminist Book Store 10th Anniversary"[50]

2013 Sam & Cat Sylvia Burke Episode: "#SalmonCat"[26]

2014 Mulaney Tutti Episode: "Sweet Jane"[77]

2016 The Odd Couple Patty Dombrowski Episode: "Taffy Days," (final appearance)[64]

As director

Year Title Notes

1979 Working Stiffs 1 episode: "The Preview Presentation"

1979–1981 Laverne & Shirley 4 episodes: "Squiggy in Love," "The Duke of Squigman," "The Dating Game," "But Seriously, Folks"[48]

1987 The Tracey Ullman Show 1 episode

1993 A League of Their Own 1 episode: "Dottie's Back"[78]

2009 According to Jim 2 episodes: "The Yoga Bear," "Physical Therapy"[48]

2010–2011 United States of Tara 2 episodes: "Explosive Diorama," "Wheels"[48]


1979: Golden Globe Nominee—Best Performance by an Actress in a Television Series—Musical or Comedy

1978: Golden Globe Nominee—Best Performance by an Actress in a Television Series—Musical or Comedy

1980: Golden Globe Nominee—Best Actress in a Television Series—Comedy or Musical Laverne & Shirley[79][80]

1988: Venice Film Festival Winner—Children and Cinema Award—Special Mention for Big (1988)

1990: Saturn Award Nominee—Best Director for film Big (1988) (Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy and Horror Films USA)

1992: American Comedy Awards Winner—Lifetime Creative Achievement Award[81]

1992: Hochi Film Awards Winner—Best Foreign Film for A League of Their Own

1994: New York Women in Film and Television Winner of Muse Award

1995: Flaiano International Prizes Winner—Career Award in Cinema

1997: Elle Women in Hollywood Awards Winner—Icon Award (shared with Meryl Streep, Jane Campion, and Laura Ziskin)

1998: Munich Film Festival Winner of High Hopes Award for With Friends Like These...

2000: Online Film & Television Association Winner—OFTA TV Hall of Fame[82]

2002: Cabourg Romantic Film Festival—Golden Swann Winner for film Riding in Cars with Boys (2001)[citation needed]

2004, Star on the Walk of Fame at 7021 Hollywood Blvd.[83]

2013: Society of Camera Operators Winner—Governor's Award[84]


1. Born Carole Penny Marshall in 1943, as per My Mother Was Nuts, a Memoir, p. 10; ISBN 978-0-547-89262-7. Copyright 2012

2. "Comedy On Tap – Garry Marshall Interview."

3. "A Penny for your Horsey?" Kentucky New Era. June 24, 1977. p. 10.

4. LaSalle, Mick (May 26, 2006). "This Jewish boy's life will make you laugh (and get a bit verklempt?)." The San Francisco Chronicle.

5. An Interview with the Cast of Keeping up with the Steins Archived April 18, 2007, at the Wayback Machine

6. Ancestry of Penny Marshall at Genealogy.com Archived July 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine

7. "Penny Marshall." Articles.chicagotribune.com.

8. Peter Canavese. "Groucho Reviews: Interview: Garry Marshall—Keeping Up With the Steins—05/05/06." GrouchoReviews.

9. "...Anthony "Tony" Masciarelli", a handsome, athletic young man majoring in advertising at New York University ... To better his chances, he changed his last name from Masciarelli to Marshall and forevermore denied that he was both Italian and Catholic." My Mother Was Nuts, a Memoir, p. 4; ISBN 978-0-547-89262-7. Copyright 2012.

10. My Mother Was Nuts, a Memoir, p. 18.

11. Abramowitz, Rachel (2000). Is That a Gun in Your Pocket? Women's Experience of Power in Hollywood. New York: Random House, ISBN 0-679-43754-1, p. 289

12. Kalogerakis, George (December 23, 1996). "Penny Marshall". People. 

13. Barnes, Mike (December 18, 2018). "Penny Marshall, 'Laverne & Shirley' Star Turned Director, Dies at 75." The Hollywood Reporter. 

14. Abramowitz, p. 290

15. Abramowitz, pp. 290–91

16. Hurwitz, Matt (February 13, 2020). "The Craft of the Kroffts: Sid & Marty's Road to Hollywood's Walk of Fame." Variety. 

17. Gilbey, Ryan (December 19, 2018). "Penny Marshall obituary." The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. 

18. "Penny Marshall's Ex-Husband Rob Reiner Reacts To Death Of Former Wife." The Inquisitr. December 18, 2018. 

19. Leszczak, Bob (2014). The Odd Couple on Stage and Screen: A History with Cast and Crew Profiles and an Episode Guide. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. p. 82–83, 207. ISBN 978-0-7864-7790-6.

20. "Penny Marshall's Most Memorable TV Roles, from Laverne & Shirley to Portlandia.. PEOPLE.com. 

21. ""Happy Days" A Date with Fonzie (TV Episode 1975)." IMDb.

22. "Laverne & Shirley (TV Series 1976–1983)." IMDb.

23. "'Laverne & Shirley' Star Cindy Williams Spills Show Secrets in New Tell-All."

24. ""Taxi" Louie Moves Uptown (TV Episode 1983)." IMDb.

25. ""Laverne & Shirley" Lost in Spacesuits (TV Episode 1982)." IMDb.

26. Bibel, Sara (June 26, 2013). "Penny Marshall and Cindy Williams to Reunite on Nickelodeon's 'Sam & Cat.'" TVbytheNumbers. 

27. "'Laverne & Shirley' stars reunite on Nick comedy." Yahoo.com. June 26, 2013.

28. "Laverne & Shirley Stars Penny Marshall, Cindy Williams To Reunite on Nickelodeon's Sam & Cat." Yahoo!TV. June 26, 2013.

29. "Penny Marshall—Director, Producer—Biography." Tribute.ca.

30. Abramowitz, p. 295

31. Mills, Nancy (October 28, 1986). "From the Archives: Penny Marshall on making the leap to directing with 'Jumpin' Jack Flash': 'I was scared stiff.'" Los Angeles Times. 

32. "Past Recipients: Crystal Award." Women in Film. Archived from the original on June 30, 2011. 

33. "Women of Vision Awards." Women in Film & Video. 

34. Yamato, Jen (December 11, 2014). "Penny Marshall Back To Baseball With Biographical picture Of First Female Hall Of Famer." 


36. California Marriage Index, 1960–1985, marriage of Carole P. Marshall and Robert Reiner, Los Angeles

37. Abramowitz, p. 291

38. "Artgarfunkel.com." Artgarfunkel.com. 

39. Gostin, Nicki (October 4, 2012). "Penny Marshall talks cancer, abortion, reconciling with 'Laverne & Shirley co-star in new memoir." Fox. 

40. "Death Certificate" (PDF). Tmz.vo.llnwd.net. 

41. Dennis McClellan (December 18, 2018). "Penny Marshall, who played feisty Laverne in 'Laverne & Shirley' before directing movies, dies at 75." Los Angeles Times. 

42. "Penny Marshall's cause of death revealed." Fox News. December 31, 2018. 

43. Rob Reiner [@robreiner] (December 18, 2018). "I loved Penny. I grew up with her. She was born with a great gift" (Tweet). 

44. Dan Rather [@danrather] (December 18, 2018). "Mourning the loss of a funny, poignant, and original American voice" (Tweet) – via Twitter.

45. Press, The Associated (December 18, 2018). "Tom Hanks, Rob Reiner and More Stars Mourn Penny Marshall." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. 

46. Cindy Williams [@Cindy_Williams1] (December 19, 2018). "I Love You, Partner" (Tweet) – via Twitter.

47. Major League Baseball [@mlb] (December 18, 2018). "We join the baseball community in mourning the passing of Penny Marshall, director of 'A League of Their Own" (Tweet). 

48. Dagan, Carmel (December 18, 2018). "Penny Marshall, 'Laverne & Shirley' Star, Director, Dies at 75." Variety. 

49. "How Come Nobody's On Our Side?" www.shockcinemamagazine.com. 

50. "Penny Marshall | TV Guide." TVGuide.com. 

51. Maltin, L. (2014). Leonard Maltin's 2015 Movie Guide. Penguin Publishing Group. p. pt1612. ISBN 978-0-698-18361-2.

52. Frame by Frame II: A Filmography of the African American Image, 1978-1994. Frame by frame. Indiana University Press. 1997. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-253-21120-0. 

53. "Look Back on 'Hocus Pocus' Scene Starring Siblings Penny and Garry Marshall as Bickering Couple." PEOPLE.com. 

54. "Laverne and Shirley star Penny Marshall dies at 75." Stuff. 

55. "Audio Special: Celebrity Readings From 'The Emperor's New Clothes.'. archive.nytimes.com. 

56. Hoberman, J. (2012). Film After Film: (Or, What Became of 21st Century Cinema?). Verso. p. 124. ISBN 978-1-84467-751-1. 

57. The Hollywood Reporter. Hollywood Reporter. 2008. p. 4. 

58. "Alice Upside Down." The Hollywood Reporter. 

59. Milligan, Mercedes (April 20, 2015). "Scooby-Doo Meets KISS in 'Rock and Roll Mystery.'" Animation Magazine. 

60. Barker, Andrew; Barker, Andrew (April 28, 2016). "Film Review: 'Mother's Day.'" Variety. 

61. "Calendar Girl | TV Guide." TVGuide.com. 

62. "Getting Away With Murder | TV Guide." TVGuide.com. 

63. "With Friends Like These... | TV Guide." TVGuide.com. 

64. Grow, Kory (December 18, 2018). "Penny Marshall, Director and 'Laverne & Shirley' Actress, Dead at 75." Rolling Stone. 

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